Course - HND in Construction and the Built Environment

Construction Substructure and Superstructure

Part 1: Substructures

Table of Contents

  • LO1 Terminology used in Construction Technology
  • P1 Difference b/w Residential, Commercial and Industrial Buildings
  • P2 Functional Characteristics and Design Selection Criteria
  • P3 Ways to promote Sustainability in Construction Project
  • References

In this report, the construction of an building and their adaptive characteristics are exploring. The main concept of the construction technologies were because of the safe design and development measures. The report covers two main parts of the assignment one is terminologies used on the construction technology and the next section covers the sustainability of the promoted building projects.

Unit 2 Construction Technology

LO1 Terminology used in Construction Technology

P1 Difference b/w Residential, Commercial and Industrial Buildings

The construction of the building is based on the reason behind the constructions. There are several measures of construction takes part which are industrial, commercial and residential buildings. Each building sites has their own basic structures such as walls, roofs and windows.
- Residential building is constructed for the purpose of the people living. The location of the building areas is dependent. The location for the residential building has to be peace areas and quite places (shadowpsi, 2020).
- For the commercial buildings, the area have to be placed on the commercial market and it is idealized with human support and accessible. This is because of the construction work which is used for commercial purposes.
- Industry building are based on the design based on the purpose of factor and warehouse and factories. It is building for proceeding the offices and other business establishments to handle their operations (measures, 2020).

As all we know, the use of designing, styling and materials are varies because of the construction buildings. For example, an functional areas of the industrial buildings consists of toilets, dining room, living room and kitchen. Commercial buildings consists of multiple office set up when compare to the residential building and itis large sized. For the residential building areas, it is required to have multiple facilities such as markets, bazars, hospitals and other essential things. The residential buildings are more expensive than the industrial building in the phase of construction (shikhacon, 2021).

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Comparison Table


Commercial Building

Residential Buildings




High powered machineries

Large Cranes and

Special equipment

It does not requires the extensive machineries and large scale equipment

Similarly no need for large scale equipment


Steel frames


Large amount of Timbers


It is building for the offices, industrial facilities and business establishments

This is built for the peoples such as apartment, home and houses(TeamBuilde, 2020).

Industrial buildings are provided for handling multiple products and their development measures

Permits Required

It requires more permits for lift access, complex power solutions, parking areas etc

It needs only few elements of permits for building regulations

Code and Permits on adherence to building regulations

Pace of Work

Requires large amount of workforce and to work in an multi task environment

Much slower pace of work because of resources

Less efficient equipment and complex pace of work

P2 Functional Characteristics and Design Selection Criteria

With the above discussed commercial, residential and industrial buildings with all their characteristics. Some of the functional requirements need for the residential buildings consists of elements required for the protection. For example, wind, rain and inquisitive onlookers. The key in terms of privacy, safety and security measures for minimal buildings measures. All kind of buildings are building have facing some disturbances range on minimal measures. Most of tehe cases have determined the aesthetics of building and their determinant factors to blend because of circumstances.

Protective Function - The protection of humans and resources against hazards are more important. The dangers such as wind, rain and interferences may taken place.

Domain or Territorial Function - All the construction operation have taken part in an place without disturbing the surroundings. It is essential to consider the public privacy, safety and security elements.

Social Function - The social function required for the environment is to carry out all their activities with communities and qualities of life.

Cultural Function - For an building it is required to satisfies all their relating requirements based on their form with spatial environment with urban design, planning and environmental factors. Culture involves in all their civilization process with the implication of activities to their environment factors.

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P3 Ways to promote Sustainability in Construction Project

In the past decades, the sustainability factors are increasing enormously and become strict because of the environmental regulations and legislations. This factor help in finding the organization and the pressure for the cost reduction gets increased. All the stakeholders such as architects, project developers and project managers have to increase their knowledge because fo sustainable projects with environmental requirements. Usage of different flows on the project helps in minimizing the usage of ecological resources. Our main goal is to limit the issues caused on climate change on the project with long term CO2 and other gestures. The expectation of the greenhouse measures and their level of code to the sustainable homes are in progress. All its plan include the design and construction of dwellings (Suryakanta, 2020).

Some of the ways that the sustainable measures on building projects have promoted are thermal energies, use of waters, material resources, surface water run, waste management, pollution control and zero carbon homes etc.

Most of the planning stages are looking for the energy efficient measures with pollution and construction site details. All their efficient energy management of organization and building sites are one of the important consideration.

Allowing site accommodation, energy performance certificate, CHP and usage have promoted in an clear range of objectives. Imbedding sustainability needs to follow up the effective waste management policies to manage their industrial waste problems. Most of the construction have to improve their hazardous substances with well measures to improve positive sigma. The lead of short project deliveries and their traditional construction process (Roman, 2020)

These kind of careful planning and promotion of sustainable measures are influence in a project design to meet the designed project and to reduce the running and maintenance costs of the building along with the appealing for an client.

FAQ: Construction Technology Terminology

  • What are some common terms used in construction technology?
  • Why is understanding construction terminology important?
  • Where can I learn more about construction technology terminology?
  • What are some additional terms I might encounter?

Part 2: Superstructures

  • Table of Contents
  • LO2 Different Techniques in Construction
  • P4 Kinds of Information collected for Construction Site
  • P5 Functional Characteristics and Design Criteria's
  • References

Construction Superstructure

The superstructure in construction and their concepts are going review in this report. All their adoption of technical concepts and their measures are performing more explicit operations. All their construction technologies are performed through the collection of various software tools and equipment taken part in it. The construction stage of the project involves in managing their construction stage of the project with automated and semi-automated construction equipment. All their technical concepts and requirements in functional and non functional are reported here along with critical factors.

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LO2 Different Techniques in Construction

P4 Kinds of Information collected for Construction Site

Pre design is the phase of analysis which involves in the measure of funding and their design begins. During the process of pre design phase, it is required to analyses all their special requirements, opportunities and proposed site information based on the cost verses and budget. Critical factors have to be considered for managing their precedence. The developments of the detailed measures are required to determine the scope, budget and project schedules.

The stages of the pre design studies involves pre design, site analysis, existing building analysis, data compilation, facilities and infrastructure analysis, programing and construction costs.

The different kind of information which are transmitting between the stakeholders are such as surveys, reports for soil sampling and structural analysis. The results of the surveys and their reports are importing to design their project. All their geotechnical report are indenturing their areas and their risks associated with landslides (Shivaerish, 2020).

The soil samples are helping to determine the depth of the ground water, bed rock, potential capacities in managing their identification of construction samples. The results and surveys are based on the impose of shrink and swell potentials with the complicated measures. All these measures are important and expensive to manage their predesign information to be more accurate. The remediation steps for the construction site is calculated over the civil engineers. It supports structural integrities for determining their substructure it will be holding (Vishvanth, 2021).

P5 Functional Characteristics and Design Criteria's

There are several structural elements required for the superstructure for exploring their sections. Important primary and secondary elements of the super structure consists of
- Walls
- Roofs
- Floors
- Windows and Doors
- Staircases
- Finishes

These characteristics are used for the designing purposes to achieve their designing featured based on the regulation and domestic values. The insulation of te sound party roofs and their sufficient thermal performance on the current reg8lation aspects and their measures (Johin, 2018).

However the building and their design options are depends on their size of the building to expand over the PAD foundations. All the construction techniques have to follow up all the commercial units to methods with the residential units to improve their converted suit purposes (Charles, 2020). The kind of information with complex set of data are measured with the cash flow, procurement accounts, quality control, assurance records and legal contract documents (Selmon, 2021).

The construction projects have to improve their measures of erected quick giving measures to cope up their residential units and their measure of storage purposes. All the characteristics for the design purpose and their internal design features have demonstrated to achieve the thermal performance using current regulatory measures.

FAQ: Substructures and Superstructures Construction Techniques

  • What are substructures and superstructures?
  • What are some common substructure construction techniques?
  • How are substructure techniques chosen?
  • What are some common superstructure construction techniques?
  • How are superstructure techniques chosen?
  • Where can I learn more about construction techniques?

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