Working in Partnership Solution:
The particular report is based on the philosophies of partnership working in the health and social care sector. Throughout the report, the researcher has tried evaluating the significance of partnership working along with its barriers in the health and social care system. Moreover, the researcher has highlighted how the government has focused on implementing different legislative frameworks in health and social care agencies in order to improve the care services for service-users. On the other hand, different working practices, as well as policies, create intricacies in executing the collaborative working process. Potential barriers of thecollaborative working process have been discussed relating to the given case study of Mr IAN. Some recommendations have been providedin order to improve the partnership working process. The researcher has tried relating Mr IAN's case study with each aspect of partnership working.
Working in a partnership indeed facilitates health and social care professionals of the organisations in enhancing knowledge in an efficient manner. By working together through partnership, healthcare professionals achieve the common goal and objectives. Partnership working allows conducting collaborative working system, which is an essential for the health and social care professionals in meeting user's needs and requirement efficiently (Ferguson2000). In this particular report, the researcher has focused on analysing the importance of the partnership based working in the health and social care organisations. Moreover, the report has highlighted an understanding of theprocess to work in partnership with the service users. On the other hand, this report has also tried in evaluating the outcomes of the partnership working for professionals, service users and organisations in the health and social care services. In every section of the assignment, the researcher has tried relating to MR IAN SERIOUS CASE REVIEW.
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1.1 Philosophy of working in partnership in health and social care
In partnership working, heal, and social care professionals and service user works together in order to achieve a common goal or objective in an efficient manner. Due to work in a partnership, professionals can obtain several beneficial aspects including power sharing, independence, empowerment, producing informed selections, autonomy (Fanjiang et al. 2005). This particular practice indeed facilitates partners in meeting individual's needs and requirements properly.
An individual should have independence in order to take decisions about the significant aspects of the life without having any influence on others and family. Consequently, it enables theindividual to lead a fulfilled life without has to worry about other's decisions. Individuals obtain adequate opportunities in the partnership working process in taking decisions about the treatment process. According to Mr IAN case study, Mr IAN was able to take apersonal decision when he was not under any influence of alcohol. However, throughout the case summary, no care organisations including Local Authority Long Term Team (LTT), Risk Enablement Panel (REP) had tried of making understand Mr IAN about his physical and mental health. When he was sober, care organisations had to focus on consulting about his decreasing health status.
Besides independence, empowerment is also neededin order to work in partnership. Empowerment is a process of providing power to users through the encouragement. Empowerment supports promotions as well as improvement of individual's capabilities in facing their intricacies and finding solutions to those difficulties employing available sources (Ling2000). This particular philosophy is individual-oriented and provides greater control as well as theresponsibility to the individual in taking decisions in life. Without having empowerment, it becomes difficult for individuals to be independent of taking own decisions in an efficient manner. Every care organisation was reluctant to take on Mr IAN's case, as they through the case would be very challenging. When the responsibility of Mr IAN was given to OT and CSW, they failed to accomplish risk assessment as well as paperwork. Hence, it is quite evident that carers had never taken the case seriously. Consequently, they failed to provide empowerment to Mr IAN.
Power sharing can be experienced when all partners come together to define roles and responsibilities in an appropriate manner. Members have ideas about what their roles and responsibilities are in order to meet common goal and objectives. For decision making as well as implementation, members need to share responsibilities (Glasby, Lilley and Peck 2003). Consequently, this process facilitates in improving productivity. Partners often recognise the importance of collaborative work in order to achieve common goal and objectives. In this scenario, all care organisations including Local Authority Long Term Team (LTT), Risk Enablement Panel (REP), OT and CSW, Review and Rebelment (R&R) had never come together and made strategies for the recovery of Mr IAN rather they were pretty busy transferring case to others.
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1.2 Partnership relationships within health and social care services
According to Hudson (2002), partnership relationship plays an important role in enhancing the working efficiency of health and social care professionals. In order to take effective decisions for service user, partners need to work collaboratively. Partnership relationship consists of three levels including organisational level, professional level, and service user level. In theorganizational level, organisations need to take care of relationships with higher authority. For instances, most of the private organisations work collaboratively with thecouncil. At theprofessional level, therelationshipis maintained by health and social care professionals including adoctor, social workers and care service providers. On the other hand, the service-user level indicates the relationship with professionals, organisations as well as service-users. Service-users need to focus on the treatment and identify whether the provided treatment facilitates in recovering (Dickinson and Glasby 2010).
On the other hand, the effective partnerships enable partners in sharing different views as well as ideas in order to meet theindividual requirement of a service user. Partners need to work collaboratively for achieving a common goal in an efficient manner. For achieving agoal, some resources need to be invested by the partners such as time, energy and resources. In a partnership based working process, information sharing can be executed in an easy way. Besides this, power can be shared among partners (Davis 2010). Consequently, it could facilitate in thedecision-making process. If thecase is cared by the individual organisation then it becomes tough to identify thenew process of treating the patient. In the given case scenario, Mr IAN had been diagnosed by different care organisations however, health care organisations were not working together in order to heal the victim. Moreover, OT and CSW were less interested in recording Mr IAN's chronic diseases. Consequently, when the case was transferred to REP, they failed to understand the physical status of the patient. If all organisations includingLocal Authority Long Term Team (LTT), Risk Enablement Panel (REP), OT and CSW, Review and Rebelment (R&R) shared information about case study with each other and worked collaboratively, then we could expect better health improvement of Mr IAN.
In the White Paper policy, it is mentioned that individual having complex needs should be guided by the partnership workin order to obtain integrated services. However, partners need to identify their individual roles and responsibilities in order to achieve a common goal or objective. All health and social care agencies need to share information of thepatient to each other in order to enhance the treatment process. Although Mr Ian was less interested in having treatment, local care organisations had to record his health status properly.
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2.1 Models of partnership working across the health and social care sector
According to Terrell (2006), there are various models of partnerships including Local Strategic Partnerships, Local Area Agreements, Coalition and hybrid model and Unified model. Local Strategic Partnership indicates the process of working for all local organisations collaboratively in order to provide public services, which convene different needs of service users. On the other hand, the local people can also involve in this process for influencing thedecision-making as well as taking action to enhance public services. On the contrary, the local agencies face failure in delivering services to local people due to thedisagreement of working together with thelocal community.
Besides this, Local Area Agreements indicate another model of health and social care services. It is a three-year agreement between the local communities and national government (McQueen 2000). This agreement is adoptedin order to achieve central government's objectives. According to the particular agreement, local community obtains funding, flexibility and power in order to meet individual needs of the serviceusers. The Government always encourages collaborative working for achieving the goal and objective. In this case scenario, the local government has instructed many health care organisations to diagnose Mr IAN's case appropriately. However, the Local Authority Long Term Team (LTT) and other care organisationswere failed in recording the health status of the patient. They were busy to transfer the case to other carers instead of utilising funding, power and flexibility in an efficient manner.
Another model called Unified model is another approach to the health and social care services. This model is a consolidation of services. For instances, although training and staffing can be delivered through diverse sectors, they could operate collaboratively in order to achieve a common goal (Boon et al. 2004). It facilitates in enhancing the integrated working to offer adequate access, evaluation and referral to health and social care services. However, the precedence is based on the health agendas as well as targets. In this policy, the service-users may face intricacies in participating in decision-making due to the involvement of various professionals as well as diverse agencies (Leipzig et al. 2002).
The particularly given case scenario of Mr IAN can be relatedto the Local Area Agreement model. Through the engagement of this model, all care agencies would have worked together share diagnosed information of Mr IAN to other carers. Consequently, it would lead to the betterment of the health status of Mr IAN.
2.2 Current legislation and organisational practices and policies for partnership working in health and social care
The UK government has made legislations in order to protect individuals from damage. Moreover, it provides guidelines on the process of working in a partnership for achieving a common goal. The UK government formed health care related laws including Care Act 2012, Equality ACT 2012, Mental Health Capacity 2005, and Data Protection Act 1998 These laws are formed by the UK governmentin order to enhance the effectiveness of partnership working.
According to the UK government, they have taken some initiatives in order to enhance the care services. For example, they have started facilitating local councils as well as healthcare organisations to provide integrated care service to the serviceusers. They have given £2.7 billion to local councils to facilitate them join up NHS and social care services. Moreover, in 2013 to 2014, they provided £100 million, and in 2014 to 2015, they provided £200 million to the local authorities to strengthen their funding.
According to the Care Act 2012, any individual seeking health and mental support will be provided care support by the local health and social care organisations regardless of race, sex, and religion. Moreover, this legislation produces theregulatory body to protect service-user against anti-competitive practices. This act allows the general practitioners to work together with local communities and identify the best possible care services for the patient. The service-users can also raise their voice regarding their treatment process under such legislation framework. It allows the people to select what health care services are right for them. In this case scenario, the local authority had avoided in diagnosing Mr IAN properly. Local Authority Long Term Team (LTT) and Mental Health Review and Reablement (R&R) were failed to develop a working relationship with him. Hence, the diagnosis process became degraded, and Mr IAN's health had never responded to the treatment.On the other hand, The Mental Capacity Act 2005 empowers individuals to take their decisions. If the person has a lack of capacity in taking own decision then care agencies can take decisions on behalf of the service-user. In this context, due to addiction to alcohol, Mr IAN was unable to take aself decision. However, when he was out of alcoholic influence, care agencies would have discussed with him about his physical and mental status.
2.3 Differences in working practices and policies affect collaborative working
Health and social care agencies have diverse work practices in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the business. Police work under the ministry of justice executing adifferent course of action including maintaining laws in order to safeguard people and their property. The policies and processes, which are followed by Police, are based on the Policing and Crime Act 2009 (Cleary 2003).
On the other hand, the adult social care agencies operate according to the local government. They work under the guidance of the Care Standards Act 2000. It provides advisory as well as community support leading to promotion of independence, human rights and health.
Homes and Communities Agency regulate housing association. These policies are based on the Community Care Act 1996 and Care Standards Act 2000. The local community can obtain low cost housing due to this policy. Hence, it is pretty evident that care agencies have adifferent course of action and include differences in policies, work process, professional perspectives, training, and goal (Watson, Townsley and Abbott 2002).
Agencies have to work together for achieving goals and objectives of the business. Sometimes, different policies and perspectives create challenging situation for the service-user to obtain enhanced treatment. In this case study, Mr IAN's case was transferred 4 to 5 times to different care agencies. Consequently, organisations often failed to understand the previous diagnose process. For example, when Risk Enablement Panel (REP) transferred Mr IAN's case to Local Authority Long Term Team (LTT), REP had not followed the proper process of transferring case. REP did not document Mr IAN's health status. Hence, Mr Ian's physical health deteriorated ended up dying. If any of the care organisations diagnose the case properly with Mr Ian's owndecision, then differences of policies were not experienced, and Mr IAN's health and mental status would have improved.
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3.1 Possible outcomes of partnership working for users of services, professionals and organisations
Due to the partnership working process, service-users obtain empowerment. Moreover, such practice indeed facilitates service-user in taking self-decision about their diagnosis (Glasby and Dickinson 2014). On the other hand, service-users get enhanced services from partners working together. Consequently, it enhances the productivity of the care agency. Besides this, health care officials obtain beneficial aspects from the partnership-based working method. For example, partners can obtain the information of service-users in an easy manner from the other agents. This easy access of information indeed facilitates them in providing enhanced diagnosis to patients. In the partnership working, resources can be utilised efficiently (Glasby and Lester 2004). Moreover, it allows the care agents to get power sharing feature, which facilitates in taking and implementing decisions.
By focusing on the partnership-based working system, complex needs of service-users can be identified in an efficient manner. On the other hand, collaborative working method indeed allows the different care agency to distribute the workload properly (Goodman et al. 2005). Consequently, the distributed workload provides adequate opportunities for achieving the common goal within the small timeframe. On the contrary, an ineffective partnership would lead to the frustration for service-users. Sometimes, in thepartnership-based working process, diverse suggestions and treatment process would decrease the healing process.
In this case scenario, Mr IAN had not felt the enhancement of health and mental conditions due to the lack of partnership-based working system. If all organisations including Local Authority Long Term Team (LTT), Risk Enablement Panel (REP), OT and CSW, Review and Rebelment (R&R) worked together, then the treatment process would have facilitated Mr IAN to get better health. The lack of care services could be identified in the diagnosis process of Mr IAN. Instead of working together, all care agencies were busy to transfer Mr IAN's case to other health care agencies. On the other hand, partnership working would have facilitated the health care agencies in identifying the bestpossible solutions for Mr IAN. In this case, most of the care agency avoided executing in-depth analysis of patient's health and mental status. For example, after handed over IAN's case to Risk Enablement Panel (REP),
3.2 The potential barriers to partnership working in health and social care services
It has been seen that partners often fail to empower the service-users in order to take their individual decisions. Sometimes, the service-users show reliance on care agencies in deciding diagnosis methods (Wilson 1999). Consequently, the individual problem of service-user is left identified, improved and promoted. In the given case scenario, once, the case of IAN was transferred to the local social care staffs including OT and CSW. They did not work together properly, as they were failed in recording the chronic issues faced by Mr IAN. The review team had noticed that neither of these care agents had recorded about Mr IAN's urinary tract infection. On the other hand, when the case was transferred from OT and CSW to REP, the team at REP did not explore challenging practices including staff safety, asking questions for service user capacity and legal framework. Consequently, they did not respond to MR IAN's expressed wishes. Hence, in the case scenario, co-workers of the health and social organisation did not focus on exploring their strengths in order to provide enhanced diagnosis process.
On the other hand, unclear roles and responsibilities of the care agents also create intricacies in providing proper treatment to the service-user (Holtom 2001). Such unclear working process could lead to the duplication of treatment, which is a waste of time and money. Moreover, incompatible systems indeed hold back partnership working, as any partner might have not aunified system for sharing information (Glasby, Dickinsonand Miller2011). Hence, it creates achallenging situation for decision-making. In the given case study, no care agency was interested in recording the health status of Mr IAN and shares it with the other organisations. Subsequently, the treatment process got complicated, which led to the decreasing health of Mr IAN.
3.3 Recommended strategies to improve outcomes for partnership working in health and social care services
It can be recommended that the health and social care agencies need to provide empowerment, shared responsibility, risk management system, monitoring, and shared involvement. By providing empowerment, the organisations allow the service-users to take anindividual decision about the treatment. According to the Care Act 2012, the UK Government has built alegislative framework, where any individual seeking needs can decide the process of treatment. However, there are local communities and other health and social care organisations available for providing facilitation in thedecision-making of service-user. Mr IAN had never been asked about his wishes about the treatment method. Although he was under alcohol addicted, he should be guided by the care agencies regarding decision-making when he was not under the influence of alcohol.
On the other hand, shared information management is needed to diagnosis the service-user appropriately. Partners can access the information of service-users at any point in time in order toenhance the treatment process. Besides this, the shared information indeed increases the rate of thetreatment process in an efficient manner. In Mr IAN's case study, there was not shared information management. Whenever Mr IAN was transferred to adifferent agency, that agency was failed to accumulate information regarding thehealth status of Mr IAN from the previous one. For example, OT and CSW had failed to record Mr IAN's chronic urinary tract infection disease. Consequently, Risk Enablement Panel (REP) was not able to start treating Mr IAN according to his physical need.
Throughout the report, different aspects of partnership working have been analysed in an efficient manner. Partnership working is one of the major partsof the health and social care sector, as it provides adequate opportunities to the care agencies to deliver enhanced treatment to the service-users. In this assignment, challenges and beneficial aspects along with recommendations of partnership working have been analysed relating with Mr IAN's case scenario.
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