Course: Higher National Diploma in Construction (Building Services Engineering)

Unit 2 Construction Technology


Unit 2 Construction Technology is a foundation block for the Higher National Diploma in Building Services Engineering. It equips students with the knowledge to understand the "bones" of a building. They'll explore terminology, delve into substructures like foundations and superstructures like walls and roofs. The course analyzes how these elements function and the factors considered when choosing construction techniques. This understanding is crucial for integrating building services, like heating and ventilation, effectively within the overall design.

Table of Contents

  • Lo2: Describe the different techniques used to construct a range of substructures and superstructures, including their function and design selection criteria
  • Lo3: Identify the different types of civil engineering/infrastructure technology used in support of buildings
  • P4: Describe the predesign studies carried out and types of information collected for a given construction site.
  • P5: Explain the functional characteristics and design criteria for primary and secondary elements of a building substructure and Super-structure
  • P6: Describe techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing
  • P7: Describe the types of substructure works carried out by Civil Engineer
  • References

Question: Describe the different techniques used to construct a range of substructures and superstructures, including their function and design selection criteria

Solution: The area is being cleaned up, and the water is being drained. In the realm of contamination control, procedures such as cut-off and encapsulation are covered. Soil remediation: stone pinning, vibro-compaction In addition to more permanent techniques like sheet piling, secant piling, grout injection freezing, and subgrade piling, dewatering may be accomplished via wells, pumps, and electro-osmosis. Other methods include subgrade piling, sheet piling, and electro-osmosis. The functionality of the substructure is as follows: A steel sheet piling foundation, concrete diaphragm walls, caissons, and cofferdams were used in the basement's construction. Additionally, culverts were put in place. The role of the superstructure is as follows: The elements that make up reinforced concrete work include steel, concrete, steel fabrication, formwork, and reinforcement.

Question: Identify the different types of civil engineering/infrastructure technology used in support of buildings

Solution: The pre-design study involves desk-based, on-site reconnaissance, and in-depth soil investigation techniques. Purposes and design concerns for the substructure Economic factors, legal concerns (health and safety work in an archaeological site), building guidelines, plant requirements, and the impact of trees on foundations are discussed, as are the various techniques for collecting distressed and uninterrupted samples, the influence of soil type on foundation design (including water and chemical content, potential loads, and the position of trees and their impact on foundations), and so on and so forth. Economic factors, legal concerns (health and safety work on an archaeological site), building guidelines, and plant requirements are also discussed. Pearson BTEC Higher Nationals Specification for Construction and the Built Environment, Issue 1 (October 2016) 2016 Pearson Limited. 80th Printing There are many different kinds of foundations, some of which include: pad, raft, piled, shallow and deep foundations, strip and deep strip foundations, shallow and deep strip foundations, and shallow and deep strip foundations (replacement and displacement piles). To name a few examples of superstructures: Steel, concrete, steel composites, and wood are all examples of traditional building materials used in framed construction. A building is made up of many different parts, including its walls, roof, structural frames, claddings, finishes, and services. Exterior walls may be made with steel studs, wood studs, or the traditional cavity method. A cladding system may be any combination of panels, infill panels, composite panels, or even a simple internal wall. Roofs have several variations, such as sloping and flat roof systems, and a wide variety of roofing materials. There are three distinct kinds of floors: the first one, the second one, and the third one, which are all floor finishes. A staircase is a means of escape that may be constructed from a variety of materials, including wood, concrete, or metal. The ceiling, walls, and flooring are all considered finishing touches.

Also read: Prepare a design proposal for a new infrastructure project solution

Question: Describe the predesign studies carried out and types of information collected for a given construction site.

Solution: A phase of the design process known as "pre-design" is one that involves analysis and takes place after money has been secured but before design work has commenced. During the pre-design phase, consideration is given to a variety of elements, including the requirements for available space, the positives and negatives associated with the site's proposed location, and the total cost of the project. The quantity of money that is available for the preliminary design stage of a project is one of the most important factors to consider when determining the order in which projects should be completed. There is a chance that money will be set aside to figure out how big the project is, how much it will cost, and when it will be done. This could be done by doing either a full technical analysis of all technical concerns or a more focused technical study of just a few problems.

During the pre-design phase, things like a site survey, programming, a review of the costs of building, and "value engineering" could be done.

What we refer to as "site analysis" really consists of a number of separate steps, some of which include site selection, the purchase of geotechnical research, and the appraisal of existing buildings.

The programming will determine the requirements for the user's project. When establishing a programme, it is required to first generate an exhaustive inventory of all of the necessary rooms, tools, and linkages. This is a prerequisite for moving on with the development of the programme.

During the early design phase of the project, value engineering conducts studies of the plan, the site selection, and the finances.

Site Exploration
Through a series of studies, potential land, an existing structure, or the current system, both on and off campus, are assessed to learn more about the constraints that may be imposed on a project and its planning and execution. For the purpose of assessing gift properties, ground leasing university real property, and purchasing property related to the campus, compliance with procedures mandated by the President's and Treasurer's offices is obligatory. The results of these kinds of procedures could be used to help with facility placement analyses.Multiple sites may be investigated for a single project, as is the norm. This information is used to plan the project and figure out how it will affect the environment.Research is used to provide an assessment of the current state of affairs. Environmental due diligence includes risk assessments, geotechnical reports, hydrological studies, site surveys (including borders, topography, and utilities), analyses of existing buildings, and more.Research of this kind is often carried out by consultants who possess the requisite level of experience in the relevant topic. It is usual practise for research reports to include not only the findings of the investigations and measurements carried out but also suggestions for the manner in which the findings of the studies may be incorporated into the structure's design. The results of these analyses will have a significant impact not only on the practicability of the project but also on concerns pertaining to public health and the law. Other studies also find indications of previous issues, but they do not make any effort to quantify the extent of the problem. The gathering of data, the preparation of site analysis reports and drawings, and the execution of site comparison analyses are all components of these investigations into the subject. (Before signing a contract for site analysis, please read FM3:4.1 through 4.4 and 4.7 to learn how to use the professional services agreement correctly.

Existing Building Analysis
Numerous studies are conducted in the event that a project will entail the use of one or more preexisting buildings in order to ascertain whether or not it will be possible to reuse any portion of the structures. These studies give information on a variety of topics, including study of functional, structural, and code-related difficulties.
• Providing access for those with disabilities.
• Methods to prevent fires and save lives.
• Concerns over energy.

Surveys Of Existing Hazardous Materials (Due Diligence)
A consultant inspects a site or building suspected of harboring asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), old fuel tanks, or any number of other potentially dangerous substances, and then recommends the best methods for their removal or mitigation. Even while the Facilities are normally aware of the dangers that exist on the sites they now occupy, new sites or sites that were once inhabited may represent a threat of soil or ground water pollution as a consequence of earlier activities.
In order to provide Facilities with assistance in the evaluation of potentially harmful compounds found on real property, the University developed a set of procedures. In addition, there are processes in place for analyzing presents of real property to check for the presence of potentially harmful chemicals.

Data Compilation
Visual analysis, land use regulations, land characteristics, environmental factors, construction codes, historical context, and access are just some of the categories for which information is gathered in order to determine the current conditions of the project. Other categories include environmental factors, historical context, circulation, and visual analysis. Even though the major goal of Initial Studies is to discover prospective project implications, these concerns are nonetheless taken into account throughout those studies (see UC CEQA Handbook.)

Site Analysis Report
The President's Office suggests including any relevant historical research and reports conducted by the university in the site analysis report.
• Asbestos, PCB, and seismic danger assessments
• Providing for the needs of people with impairments
• Environmental Impact Reports and Proposed Long-Term Development Plans
Plans for autos and bicycles, as well as plans for circulation and parking, utility plans, highway plans, expansion plans for neighboring buildings, precinct plans, and design guidelines for facilities.

Site Analysis Drawings
Multiple site analysis studies may be shown in a single drawing called a site analysis. Although many of the features shown on these drawings have some bearing on the environment, they are not meant to give a complete explanation or meet any of the requirements of the procedure for creating an environmental impact assessment.

A Comparative Analysis Of The Sites
A comparative site study evaluates the merits and drawbacks of many potential project sites in relation to a predetermined list of criteria, and then provides findings on the place that is best suited for the endeavour. Determining the criteria and the order in which they should be prioritised is the first stage in this analysis. Generally speaking, the goals, objectives, or particular performance requirements serve as the basis for the criteria. These standards may be broken down into two categories: threshold criteria, which are requirements that can only ever be completely acceptable or not acceptable, and more comprehensive criteria, which can have different degrees of applicability. Accessibility is one of the factors that might be used.
• Proximities.
• Hazards.
• The layout of the land and its availability (area and shape).
• Limitations imposed by the physical qualities.
• Environmental consequences.
• Costs (development and operation and maintenance).
• Timing.
• Specifics of the design.
• Acceptability.
• The compatibility of the proposed use with other uses already in place. • The accessibility of necessary services.

The next phase in the comparative site study is identifying the functional and Facility requirements for the location that is planned to house the business. In order to determine whether or not the programme is appropriate for the location, it is necessary to have a solid understanding of the project programme, the phasing of the project, and any other operational or managerial concerns.
If an EIR is going to be produced for the project, one of the steps that must be completed is a comparative site study. An Environmental Impact Report (EIR) is not complete without a review of the project's many alternatives, which may include alternate site locations. It is necessary to demonstrate that the chosen location is appropriate for the project by demonstrating how well it meets the goals of the endeavour.

Analysis of The Facilities And The Infrastructure

The university's facility audit and inspection programme was initiated as a result of the Supplemental Report of the 1984 Budget Act. The report included your recommendations. The purpose of this auditing and inspection programme is to discover neglected maintenance tasks and prioritise them for attention.

Any projects or systems that will need to be replaced utilising the Capital Improvement Program will also be uncovered by this method. Facility planners should work with those in charge of the plant's operations and maintenance to get insight into capital renewal and replacement. found projects as a result of this inquiry.

Colleges and universities estimate future energy demands via either long-term expansion planning or more comprehensive utility plans for the whole campus.

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Programming Objectives
The requirements of the user are specified by the programming. This involves establishing the functional demands of the interior and exterior of the project as well as the functional requirements of the space itself, including its dimensions, contents, activities, and connections. Not only does a project plan provide a foundation for the design of a project and a source of information about that project, but it also typically acts as a foundation for the pursuit of financing. The project programme, which is frequently referred to as the "detailed project program," is the end result of the programming process (DPP).

The Project Program
The most important component of the programming approach is an explanation of the problem that is clear and methodical in its progression. In the majority of instances, the specific information on the programme is stored in a location that is distinct from the more general functional data. The quality of the job as well as its scope are determined by the programmes that are used for projects. In many instances, the term "quality" is defined in a more broad way within the project's goals and in a more specific manner within the project's programmed activities. The scope has been carefully sketched out, and it takes into consideration all of the following aspects:

• The many operations and applications
• The total number of square feet that have been assigned for the proposed structure
• The users, their definitions, and the reasons for which they utilise the system
• The total number of square feet that have been allocated for the system
• Special considerations (Going all the way up)

Construction Costs
In the following section, we will go over the approaches that are used in the process of calculating the construction costs for the project budgets. A fraction of the total cost of a project that corresponds to the cost of the construction is included in the current budget for capital improvements (CIB).

Originals Of The Cost Details Available
It is common practice, when estimating the costs of a construction project, to look at the costs of previously finished projects that were comparable to the one that is being estimated, and then to apply those costs to the current project, making adjustments for location, scope, construction time period, and any other relevant factors. This is done in order to arrive at an accurate cost estimate.

Methods Of Estimating Costs
The following methods are used to figure out how much something will cost to build (from most general to most specific):

value in terms of gross square feet. This method makes use of databases maintained by groups like the Association of University Architects that have information on the costs involved with constructing different kinds of buildings and makes that data freely accessible to the public via cost information services (AUA).

detailed cost estimates for individual construction parts and systems Price data for various construction materials, broken down by both total square footage and component square footage, is available in printed reference books.

The amount spent on construction may be attributed to a certain construction specialty or section of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI). This kind of estimate is most useful during the construction documents phase of a project, when there is enough information to break down the different systems into their parts and do a precise quantity survey, similar to what contractors do when they bid on a project.

Conditions contingents

When doing any sort of calculation, it is common practise to provide some room for error in case anything unexpected arises. This is done to ensure that the estimate will be accurate. It is not recommended to build additional explicit criteria on top of already established implicit ones. The CIB takes into account all of the potential outcomes of both the design and the overall project.
The design buffer's purpose is to account for the fact that completed designs frequently have more components than anticipated. The backup strategy for the design was developed with this consideration in mind. During the planning stages of the building project, a backup plan was developed to provide for any unanticipated expenditures that may occur. A reserve fund has been established by the group in the event that the real cost of construction and the associated costs end up being much higher than the total amount that was budgeted for them. It is essential to make a distinction between the terms "project contingency" and "escalation factor." (You may get more information about indexing in the prior paragraph at the number 6.8.5.)

Preparing The Construction Cost Estimate
Before a building design can be established with components from which to estimate, the university's plan for financing capital improvement projects needs as much estimating information as the cost by building systems and components technique outlined above. To give an accurate estimate of how much a design will cost, you need to describe all of the parts that will be used.

Examples might be taken from projects that are representative of the whole. The recommended analogues are other university-wide programmes that are comparable. The list of elements that affect costs may be used to make assumptions about the factors that are important to the proposed project, and then those assumptions can be used to compare these factors to the factors that were found in the instances. It is possible to calculate the cost of each construction component or factor by modifying the associated cost from the sample project (for example, the cost associated with the weight of the structure and the loads) to reflect the circumstances that are anticipated to exist for the proposed project.

The Indexation Of Costs

Utilizing the index that is produced by Engineering News Record allows for the accurate projection of past cost data into the future (ENR)

Question: Explain the functional characteristics and design criteria for primary and secondary elements of a building substructure and Super-structure

Solution: Superstructure
When constructing the main structure that sits above the ground level and is responsible for bearing the live load, this structure is referred to as the "superstructure." It is an upward extension of the structure that already exists above the basline, which is also known as the ground level. The part of a building that is located fully on higher floors than the foundation or basement is referred to as the "superstructure." It comprises all flooring, roofing, lintels, and parapets, as well as door and window schedules. In addition to that, it consists of slabs, beams, and columns that move upward.


The portion of a building that is located below the ground and acts as the building's substructure is referred to as the basement. The weight of the superstructure must be evenly distributed down to the foundation, and that is the responsibility of the substructure. Because of this, the foundation is able to rest directly on the ground, which contributes to the building's solidity. The footing and the plinth make up a building's substructure, often known as the foundation.

An expert structural engineer should create the substructure designs and works for a construction project. In addition to this, structural engineers are accountable for the computation of stresses and loads that are necessary to be sustained by the building that is the focus of this discussion. Last but not least, structural engineers need to have an understanding of how to include support beams, columns, and foundations into the designs for the substructure.

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Question: Describe techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing

Solution: It is common practise to carry out a number of pre-design assessments on the building that will be the subject of the structure before commencing actual work on the project. These pre-design evaluations incorporate the findings of surveys and studies that were conducted with the intention of assisting in the first stages of the creation of the structure. When doing a pre-design investigation to determine the state of the land or the present site, the two basic components that are carried out are the soil sample and the existing building surveys. Both of these components are part of the pre-design investigation. These are carried out so that information may be gathered about the structures that are already there in the area where the construction will take place. On the other hand, the findings and reports from these surveys are put to use in order to identify the parts of the design and construction of a building that could be hampered by certain factors.

This is done in order to improve the overall quality of the structure. Investigations of the ground's geotechnical properties may help pinpoint places that are prone to land slides and subsidence, as stated by Lee (2013). [An additional citation is required] On the other hand, taking soil samples may be helpful in establishing the depth of bedrock, the depth of ground water, the bearing capacity of the soil, its tendency to swell and contract, as well as other characteristics of the soil. When building a structure, there are a number of preparatory procedures and activities that need to be carried out in order to make the building site suitable for construction. These activities and procedures are intended to prepare the site for the actual building process. Beginning the building process is necessary in order to have the location suitable for use. The remediation of both the surface water and the subsurface water is going to be carried out throughout this process, and the end result will be the restoration of the soil. According to Lee (2013), a method that solves a problem in the natural environment by utilising a mix of chemical, physical, and biological techniques dered a remediation approach. It is possible that it will become financially viable to carry out land maintenance tasks inside the confines of the building site if the value of the structure is enhanced.

A variety of bioremediation strategies, all of which are suited for the building of structures, have been used in order to lower the total quantity of hydrocarbons in the soil down to a more manageable level. This has been accomplished by using a number of bioremediation procedures. The term "biofiltration," which is an abbreviation for "biological filtration," refers to an additional important method that might be used during the building of a structure. This technique provides a contribution toward both the control and removal of air pollution, which are both important objectives, and the construction site is a big contributor toward both of those goals. Both the use of heterusehic aerobic bacteria and the alignment of biopiles, both of which are beneficial to the construction process, are necessary in order to create large minerals from tiny particles. This is accomplished by using biopiles. Despite this, such property has to be constantly monitored and maintained. According to Pan (2013), caPan (2013)ng is yet another physical remediating approach that is used before the conuction of structures. This metusThis method is used prior to the construction development process because it contributes to the soil purification process. ease in the total number of very minute particles in a relatively short amount of time, making it possible for this reduction to take place. During the phase of a building's construction in which it is being created, a separation system is necessary in order to improve the process of removing pollutants and make their removal easier.

This is e so that the building may be used when construction is complete (Pekuri, 2011, pp. 39-58). Before beginning any kind of b39-58ng work at the site, the first step should be the procedure of soil cleaning, which should then be followed by the strategy of air drying. This is done to ensure that the surface of the ground is completely free of any trace of moisture. The sorting approach that makes use of radiation has been chosen because it produces a dirt surface that is cleaner, and this strategy is used in conjunction with the sorting strategy that makes use of electronic beam irradiation (Belyaev and Sazonov, 2010, pp. 818-825). In addition, the plan ensure818-825the natural purity of both the groundwater and the surface water will be preserved during its implementation. The potentially harmful material may be found on earth, but it is rendered safe when it interabuth hydrogen ions and hydroxides (Lee et al., 2017, pp. 121-132). When an ion of hydrogen reacts w121-132er, a chemical reaction takes place that results in the formation of both water and carbon dioxide, as well as the ion of hydrogen. The techniques of mercury solvent extraction and mercury abstraction are the primary methods that may be used in order to remove mercury from the soil and ground surface. These are the two primary methods that are used in the process that is being described (Pekuri, 2011, pp. 39-58). When using this method to extract 39-58ry, a number of different types of byproducts are produced in addition to the mercury itself. It is safe to say that these byproducts, which are developed during the extraction process, are hazardous and poisonous compounds because ey are developpoisonous compounds the extraction process. Because this method for removing mercury involves the use of treatment with an aqueous stream, the by-products that are produced in the process are both dangerous to one's health and capable of causing one's death. When carrying out these tasks, the application of cutting-edge technology is absolutely necessary because doing so makes it much simpler to transform a building project into a reliable structure.

Question:  Describe the types of substructure works carried out by Civil Engineer

Solution: During the construction phase of a project, civil engineers are responsible for a broad variety of the building's substructures. According to Salati (2017), the foundation and substructures of a building relate to the bottom section of the structure, which is typically located below the ground level. This lower component of the building assists in the transfer of loads from the supporting soil to the superstructure of the building. As a result, when people talk about a building's foundation, they are referring to the part of the structure that makes direct contact with the ground and contributes to transferring the weight of the building to the ground below. As soon as this is determined, the cost and spending plan for the structure may be figured up. These studies are very important for assisting the project team in the planning and design of the building in accordance with its limitations. Land contamination is one of the most significant problems that is often discovered during the pre-design analysis survey (Lee, 2013). Land contamination need remediation in order to be acceptable for the installation and excavation of the foundation. Due to the high expense of these procedures, it is very necessary to have precise information on any pre-design analyses conducted. After the soil has been successfully treated, the civil engineers will be able to calculate the cost of the foundation depending on the design that has been suggested and the materials that are going to be utilised. Piling is a procedure that is used when it is determined that the ground cannot support the construction of a structure. On the other hand, the piling technique is a methodology that involves the insertion of huge piles in addition to excavation in order to produce a basis for the building construction and to sustain the structural integrity of the structure. The civil engineer who is in charge of the building construction is the one who is responsible for identifying the number of piles that are included as well as their places on the plan and the setting-outing.

A broad variety of specialised tools and pieces of equipment are used during the process of transforming the unstable foundation of a structure into a solid foundation. The Pilling system is an essential component that must be present in order to successfully construct the substructure. Components of this system include shallow foundations, stripe footings, individual footings, and pile foundations (Pekuri, 2011, pp. 39-58). The open footing is another name for the shallow foundation that is a component of the pilling system. This is due to the fact that the foundation is open. In addition, the single tooting was used in the substructure works so that workers could access other parts of the overall construction operation. The carrying capacity of the soil may be maintained, as can the weight of the soil, with the aid of concentration. In order to successfully apply the needed design structure, the designing of the footing has to be kept simple, and acceptable design may be analysed by comparing the building's original structure to its most recent structure (ZHU, and TANG, 2011). According to Salati and Mirkovi, 2017, pages 103-109, the form of the column is planned and developed in such a way that it meets its load-bearing capability and maintains its shape.

The primary duty of a construction engineer is to evaluate the reliability of a building's foundation as well as the strength of the surrounding soil (Murray and Dainty, 2013). However, the functionality of the structure is dependent on whether or not there is underlying support available. Using the blueprints as a guide, it is required to carry out calculations in order to guarantee that the structure will not collapse. The strip footing is the one that bears the weight of the wall (Zavalishin, Belyaev, and Sazonov, 2010, pp. 815-825). Frequently, the strip foundation may be discovered. In ancient times, when buildings were being constructed, the foundation of a building's footing was traditionally supported by a single column. It is possible that the unstable surface of the earth might be stabilised and strengthened by the use of pile foundations as the primary supporting structure (Pekuri, Haapasalo, and Herrala, 2011, pp. 39-58). Buildings are designed by construction engineers, and the piling foundation has a dual purpose: it offers extra support for the structure, and it also contributes to the process of keeping the building's weight in check. In the process of providing structural support for enormous and/or hefty projects, the piling foundation is also utilised. This support may be either horizontal or vertical.


  • Q: What are substructures and superstructures?
  • Q: What are some techniques used to construct substructures?
  • Q: How are superstructures constructed?
  • Q: What are the design considerations for substructures and superstructures?
  • Q: Why is understanding these techniques important?
  • Q: What role does civil engineering play in buildings?
  • Q: What are some types of civil engineering technology used in buildings?
  • Q: How does infrastructure technology support buildings?
  • Q: Why is this technology important?

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