Qualification - Level 4 and Level 5 Higher National Diploma in Construction and The Built Environment
Unit Name - Civil Engineering Technology
Unit Number - Unit 18
Assignment Title - Apprentice Training
Learning Outcome 1: Explain the common methods and techniques used in civil engineering earthworks and substructures
Learning Outcome 2: Present a site safety plan, risk assessment and method statement for a given civil engineering activity
Learning Outcome 3: Evaluate a given civil engineering problem and propose a solution
Learning Outcome 4: Prepare a design proposal for a new infrastructure project
You have recently been employed by a large civil engineering company. They are looking to update the website on the role of professional civil engineers, their essential involvement in the construction and maintenance of infrastructure, and the key technologies they apply. The technologies and processes of civil engineering, in the development of highways, bridges, substructure and superstructure, are crucial to support contemporary societies.
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I have been employed in a large civil engineering organization. The organization is decided to update its website about the role of professional civil engineers and their involvement in construction and infrastructure building. The organization manager has asked me to prepare a report which provides clear information that supports the new website. In this report, I have to discuss the methods and techniques used in civil engineering for earthwork activities and present a safety plan for civil engineering activities. This report highlights the activities that have taken to undertaken during the earthwork with their measurements. The main scope of the earthwork is depending on construction work and focuses on extensive projects. In this section, all the earthwork activities, techniques, and methods are explained in this report.
You have been requested by your manager to produce a report which can be used to provide clear information for the new website. The report should analyse and evaluate by
(i) Discuss earthworks activities, equipment and techniques
It is an initial activity that is performed to prepare the construction site for a structured foundation. These activities are undertaken for specific purposes such as stripping, roadway, footing, and channel excavation. Earthwork is a construction activity that is made on earth and those operations are connected with excavation operations. These typical earthwork activities include road construction, railway, dams, canals, and berms (AliShehadehaOdey, et al., 2019). The construction work includes excavation, transportation, and placing the soil in a predominant location. The main activities of the earthwork are initiated with effective measuring and calculating of the volume, loading, hauling, and unloading operations.
Steps to calculate volumes
Following are the general steps to measure the excavation of volume in construction earthwork,
i) Measure the ground level using a suitable instrument and draw a cross-section table.
ii) From road peg to excavation peg, the cross-section scaling is done to measure the construction site (FU, 2019).
iii) After measuring the volume, ensure that the bottom of the slot is leveled. The boning rods can check the gradient road and adjust it.
iv) Once the excavation of volume is set, the construction site slot has been measured and recorded to calculate the cutout model. Then perform scaling by shaping the volume computation.
v) The volume of the slot is the product of the average cross-section and distance between slots (Moselhi, 2019).
Once the volume of the slot has been calculated, the next process is excavation. The excavation is nothing but loosening the soil from its natural stage. This process involves moving the soil for a specific distance by removing the earth quantities in the construction process. There are four common processes of excavation which are leveling, borrow cut to cross fill, and U-cut. All these types of excavation processes in construction should be organized in such a way of the loading or throwing activities process more smoothly.
» The leveling is a process of leveling to obtain good to bump and land depression to obtain width in uniform levels. The leveling is carried out with a hoe, rakes, and shovels for a short distance. It is compacted using hand rammers once it is filled with soil.
» Cut to cross fill excavation is done from one side and another side is filled with materials. These materials and soil are excavated from dumped outside as an effective form of balancing the rolling terrain (Martina Šopic*, 2019).
» The U cut method is a method that is shaped as U. To reduce the gradient, U cut is required to be deeper than 1 meter. It is a good practice to minimize the width of the road in U cuts.
» This borrow is one of the methods to choose the excavated soil filling from outside. This method is not suitable for embankments. The borrowing method should be performed in a well-planned manner and laid out with haulage.
Some of the common tools that are used in the process of excavation are Hoe, forked Hoe, Pock Axe, shovels, stretchers, tractors, carts, trailers, and Mattock. The excavation is one of the important steps for leveling the construction project which is done before the foundation work. These procedures are easily done and could able to be utilized based on the type of soil and equipment used. Once we performed the loading operation, the height should be minimized and it can be achieved by loading bays for trailers (Parente, 2019).
(ii) Describe methods and techniques used to create complex foundations, piling works and dewatering.
The pile foundation is to provide support to the structure and transfer of loads to the soil instead of the structure of the soil. The layers of the foundation are reinforced using suitable techniques and strategies. There are several foundation methods are used depending on the total load transfer from the superstructure to the soil. This is a deep foundation made of cylindrical reinforcement with the use of steel rods. The main function of the pile foundation is to support the structure and ensure load transfer (Gusuvan, 2020).
To displacement and replacement pile is possible. The pile foundation is formed by using thin steel and making the column to reinforce the concrete. The kind of foundation is classified as the file which is deeper than the width. The pile foundation is generally used in large buildings to make the building withstand excess settlement. While applying the pile foundation, heavy loads were used and these were applied and compress the soil excavation.
Based on the function, the pile foundation is classified as used in methods of construction. The two classes of pile foundation are divided based on the function and construction method used.
According to the function, foundation piles are divided into sheet piles, load-bearing piles, friction piles, soil compactor piles, and load-bearing piles. Based on the materials, the foundation piles are timber, concrete, steel, and composite piles (Facilitator, 2020).
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(iii) Describe methods and techniques used in culvert construction and underpass construction.
The culvert construction method is a concrete structure in the shape of a tunnel or boxes. It is constructed on the construction site and provided water from one area to another area. This construction is done with the help of concrete pipes that have been reinforced with steel. It is one of the most common methods which is used to reduce water flooding and enhance the flow of water (Ajima, 2019). Some of the common methods which are used to construct the culvert are
» Identify the location and position of the culvert by making a consultation with the Land surveyor.
» Begin the site excavation based on the measured culvert size with the determination of various grades.
» Then compact the trench using soil to support the base and get reinforcement from both the ends.
On the underpass construction, the culverts are playing a vital role in the installation of fiber optics, water pipes, gas lines, and other utilities (Wu, 2019).
Micro tunneling is a non-disruptive technology that is used in controlling the excavation. These pipes are made used of different materials such as concrete, steel, and other tunnels. There are four major pieces of equipment were used which are thrust ring, casing ventilation hose, and control panel.
This micro tunneling is used in drainage and sewage construction by replacing the pipeline system. It is highly used in telecommunication installation. Some of the common benefits of this culvert construction are inherent strength of lining, faster installation, secondary lining, and prevention of groundwater sewage.
(iv) Analyze methods and techniques used in large complex earthmoving operations and deep excavations.
Techniques used in large complex earthmoving operations and deep excavations
In complex earth moving operations, the cost required for the excavation is done with the depth of the construction site, soil type, and techniques used. The cost of the excavation is varied from the excavation of earth moving operation by measuring the cost of equipment, labor, and other external factors. The cost calculation is based on various factors (Khakulov, 2019). For an effective and accurate analysis, there are some of the criteria which should be followed are listed here
» Soil type as loose or compact
» Load distance and transport carried
» Excavation depth based on a construction project
» Method of excavation
» Equipment cost and capacity
» Usage of water
To carry out the complex earthmoving operations and deep excavations, there are numerous equipment and machines are taken place which is listed here
It is a heavy machine with a base cabin fixed at the end. These excavators are the hydraulic system that is used to operate and control the machine by 360-degree rotate operation. The application of the excavator is demolition and excavation operation.
This is a tyre mounted equipment that is used to dig for pipelines and fills for excavation and lift the objects. The application of the backhoe is to lift the objects.
It is a heavy-duty machine used for moving more amount of soil or other construction materials. The application is to grade in the construction (Dadhich, 2021).
Skid steer loaders
It is small-sized equipment used for space-constrained sites and to focus on the skid on its axis. The application of the skid steer loaders is to loading trailers
The trenchers are used to pipe the system for foundation and use the conveyor belt in performing dug-out operations. the application of trenchers is having wheels while others have tracks.
(v) Evaluate methods and techniques used to deal with issues of ground and slope stability.
D1 Methods and techniques used to deal with issues of ground & slope stability
The sloppiness is one of the major construction sites which performs disruption on land adjacent and leads to the rock falls. The ground slope stability focuses on the shearing stress with the counteracted model. Some of the methods and techniques which are used to deal with the issues caused because of the slope and ground stability are discussed is
» Deep excavation
» Jet grouting
» Dewatering of column
It is more important to dewater the column even under the cutting process of soil cutting under pressure.
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The company place health and safety at the top of their priority list and are dedicated to continually improving health safety standards on site and amongst the workforce. The main areas the company is focusing on are excavations, working in confined spaces, working on structures and working temporary works.
(i) Identify the hazards, risks and safety arrangements associated with these activities
P4 Hazards, risks, and safety arrangements for excavations
The hazards, risks, and safety arrangements were discussed for the confined spaces of building highways. Some of the hazards and risks associated with the construction of the highway are listed here.
» There are more possibilities of using the buried objects such as metals and explosiveness
» Fails in excavated holes and trenches
» The site consists of contaminated chemicals
» Adjacent structures of the building and bridges get collapsed
» Collapsed rock or soil (Ferguson, 2020)
» Access from excavation
» there is a possibility of affecting due to the high voltage power lines
» hazardous substances affect the fuel-burning models
» Issues with falling loads cause injuries to the workers.
Some of the construction safety regulations which are used to follow were placing the measures to protect the employees on the construction site.
i) To perform an appropriate site safety checks and seek to lay down protocols
ii) The contractor is responsible for checking the services on the construction site and knowing about their validity.
iii) Use more scanners to ensure the underground services are causing imposed danger
iv) The contractor has to plan for the safety arrangement and to focus on the onsite operation and follow the site construction plan at all times.
v) Implement the safety policies and procedures and handle their emerging procedures on protecting the workers from workplace injuries (Solonia, 2020)
vi) It is required to make effective inspections with high power lines and place the water connection models.
vii) Use the emergency posters and warning signs in some restricted areas to tell the person who adequately visits the place.
viii) All the workers are required to wear a piece of personal protective equipment at the construction site.
(ii) Develop and present a site safety plan, risk assessments and method statements for a selected activity
P5 Site safety plan, risk assessments, and method statements
A site safety plan is an essential process that helps in evaluating the risk and benefits factors. This helps in reducing the cause of risks by identifying their risks and safety arrangements. It is achieved by having appropriate risk management techniques.
In consideration of that activity, the risk is measured based on the probability and consequence factors. The risk is identified based on specific criteria to measure the context of risks.
The risk analysis involved performing a generic representation of the risk flow based on decision analysis. The identification of the hazards was done by a variety of techniques called
i) Preliminary hazard analysis
ii) Failure mode and effect analysis
iii) Hazard and operability studies
iv) Risk screening
These are some of the common methods of analyzing the risk factors which occur on the construction site. After identification of the risks at a construction site, it is essential to analyze the consequences of the risks. The calculation is measured based on the level of impact and it is understood based on the geological properties such as dispersal in soils, sedimentation, and natural system impacts. By analyzing the impact we can able to determine the risk that causes damage or loss of function to the construction site.
After knowing about the consequences of risks, the analysis of probability is forecasted based on the business issues. The probability measurement is acquired through collecting past information from various construction projects.
The inspection and survey are more essential and this focuses on the surface condition of the construction site and manages their excavation and focus on the site models. Then use the stairs, ladders, and ramps to compare with the required standards of inferiors structures.
(iii) Discuss health & safety legislation and codes of practice related to civil engineering sites.
M2 Health & safety legislation and codes of practice
About the civil engineering site, the health and safety regulation 39 support the entire activities.
• Timber structures used in the excavation process are erected immediately which will protect the workers from the occurrence of collapse and weakness.
• The examining of the excavation or earthwork examines the commencement of excavation and focuses on the completed or abandoned models (FU, 2019)
• For the abandoned work, no further work is carried out. Once the approval report has been established, there are several measures are required to examine the necessary models.
• The report on the approved form focuses on the competent person to prescribe the safety models and maintain the earthwork in a structured and secure method.
Some of the codes of practice that are applied to the above regulation 39 were based on the dislodgement of earth lock, striking the workman or person from a height of more than 1.2 meters. Some precaution measures are required to ensure the safety of the workers. It helps in the examination of the earthwork by ensuring the safety of employees at the construction site.
Some of the codes and standards which are directly applied to the construction of the proposed construction project were
i) Safety health and welfare at work 2005
ii) Health and safety regulation
iii) Manual handling operation regulation
iv) Hazardous waste regulation
v) Construction design management regulation
vi) Occupational safety and health regulation
(iv) Justify a site safety plan, risk assessments and method statements report for activities related to a given civil engineering project.
D2 Site safety plan, risk assessments, and method statements
As all we know, the construction work is included more dangerous actions. So that it is required for the construction engineers and supervisors to ensure that the construction site is followed with occupational safety and health amendment. The regulation of the safety plan needs to ensure the workers by using a more protective system and make it available for more than one time.
Using the protective system on a construction site, it is required to inspect the site daily and to use the competent. There is no possibility of inconveniences occurring which needs to be ensured for the quality of work and their safety standards (Facilitator, 2020).
A few hazards of the civil engineering work site is
» Falls to excavation
» Collapse on excavation sites because of weak soil
» Contamination in the excavated area
In such a case, the contaminants need to focus on the chemicals and other explosiveness which causes injuries. Having an attempt to contaminate causes inspection on the site and affects the competent officer. Falling in the excavated area or objects falling from the rooftop could be minimized by using erecting principles on the excavation site.
You have recently been employed by a large civil engineering company. The company have been working with a client who has several possible projects under consideration. For a given civil engineering project: (agreed with tutor)
(i) Evaluate the environmental, quality, geotechnical and economic contexts of the project.
P6 Environmental, quality, geotechnical and economic contexts
The primary purpose of the proposed industrial construction is to offer commercial spaces for the organization to continue its business operation. In this proposed construction site, industrial construction should be in a confined space that directly and indirectly affects the environment.
But in the current project, there are possibilities of more economic challenges that arise in the workplace. This kind of economic solution in the project causes severe project problems. The construction projects are caused because of the issues of grievous environmental, geotechnical, and quality issues (Facilitator, 2020). So that the clients have to choose a sustainable construction project. Here, the project issue is because of the correlation between design and construction. The construction project leads to focus on the environmental, geotechnical, and quality issues that arise in the workplace.
Some of the environmental, quality, geotechnical, and economic challenges associated with the current project are listed here.
• The use of substandard materials in the construction affects the quality of the construction project.
• Noise pollution in the construction area will affect the vibration and causes issues in the construction processes.
• There is a possibility of the atmospheric pollution which affects the construction debris, cement, and toxic gases from the construction process
• Careless deposits of the construction debris cause excavated soil and wastes
• Excessive vibration causes affecting the construction machine and causes weakness in geotechnical strength in the region of the construction site (Ferguson, 2020).
(ii) Propose a suitable solution to the problem, demonstrate how the environmental, geotechnical, quality and economic contexts of the problem are addressed and justify the selection of specific features in the development of the solution.
P7 Propose a solution to a given civil engineering problem
With the advancement of technology, construction organization is also facing more technical advancements in the industry. There are several approaches and methods used to eliminate the issues. With recent advancements in technology, pollution issues arise because the concrete mixers and their pouring are avoided (FU, 2019). It is possible through using the mixed core concrete internally and avoid those issues. Innovation of the concrete mixer trucks is managed with the surrounding environment and focuses on the fume pollution during the site concrete mixing.
In addition to that using the prefabricated materials at the construction site will reduce the fume pollution on on-site concrete, and mixing. These modular construction materials result to avoid the excess noises that have taken place on the construction site. The use of prefabricated construction materials will minimize the excess noise on the construction site and avoid noise pollution. The issues in the landfills are avoided by reusing the materials in other construction work. It will help in reducing the pavement instead of disposing of landfills.
Finally, feasibility development is one of the essential development to regain the economic investments in the industry. These created broad access to managing the economic development and focuses on the unique situation through having a feasible model and consistent development practices. This issue resolving model helps to protect from the construction that causes huge issues in the construction site examination. This will also guide to improve the structural building plan and manage it in an effective method (Khakulov, 2019).
M3 Environmental, geotechnical, quality & economic contexts of problem
The common problems that are addressed based on the environmental, geotechnical, quality, and economic contexts were
i) Air pollution because of the blocks of cement, toxic gas, and different construction process
ii) Noise pollution caused because of machine
iii) Landfill because of unwanted substances
iv) Excessive vibration of the construction machines
v) Affects the quality because of substandard materials
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Your manager has given you a specific project to work on, (tutor to provided infrastructure project details)
Describe methods and techniques used in highway design and techniques used to create bridges such as : Analysing methods and techniques used to create bridge foundations, flexible highway construction foundation criteria and related geotechnical parameters, methods and techniques used to create flexible highways, methods and techniques used in highway link and junction design and describe flexible pavement design.
P8 Methods and techniques used in highway design
Construction site accessibility is more important when focusing on construction projects. Considering the highway design construction site location, there are more interference possibilities are high because of the commercial and transport operation. There are several techniques and methods used on construction sites to access the highway.
Concrete road, Water bound Macadam, Gravel road, Earth road techniques, recycling, and bituminous technique are some of the techniques used in the civil engineering work.
Concrete is a common option for road building. This concrete method is a solid material that is used for building walls and helps in improving their stripping loss, cracking, and path holes (Khakulov, 2019).
Asphalt is a common method of construction that focuses on the durable, water-resistive and commonly used method. This is an expensive method that could able to handle the repair and maintenance. Through this technique, we can achieve pavement surfacing.
The composite method is one of the widely used methods which we used for the rehabilitation of the roads. It is a combination of both asphalt and concrete material.
The bituminous construction method is one of the ideal construction methods which is used to manage the project in a flexible method (Ferguson, 2020). Those construction techniques of the bituminous layer consist of three main layers which are including the bottommost layer and subsequent layers. The elasticity of the layers is shaped to fit the construction work with construction progress.
Recycling is using damaged materials in the construction of roads using full-depth replacement, hot or cold prepared road recycling, and rubberizing.
(ii) Develop a civil engineering design proposal for a new infrastructure project and justify the selection of specific features in the development of the solution.
P9 Civil engineering design proposal for a new infrastructure project.
June 24, 2022
Thanks for choosing our ABC architects for architectural needs. We value that great architecture suits the personal and professional style of construction. We should make the vision into reality.
I hope the proposal met with needs and requirements. Please feel free to contact us at any time. Stay happy to serve you. I am looking forward to satisfying the project vision.
The project is generally defined as follows and has an initial approximation area of 200 square meters in the Client area.
The proposed project uses the sequential design phases including
1. Project definition
2. Schematic design
3. Design & development
4. Documentation & approval
In this phase, we involve in collecting all requirements of the project. Our organizational architect involves in the technical requirement of the project. In this phase, we are going to make a conceptual framework, gather relevant details, the scope of the architect services and review the owner space and prepare for budgeting & scheduling.
In this schematic design phase, we are going to make the conceptual plan for the construction site. The owners have to evaluate the program, budget, schedule, and other proposed methods. Also, the owners involve in preparing the description of the statement of design and submit to the owner by getting approval for the plan designed
Design & development
Based on the conceptual plan, the design document and their elevation models are performed. All the specification of the entire project is measured. Each structural characteristic, and electrical and communication system plan is developed. the diagrammatic layout for the construction system is also developed.
Documentation & approval
Make a contract with the client and focuses on the structural and detailed design model. The preparation is performed with technical specifications. Then obtain the building permit and make the technical specification on obtaining the permit. The owners will gain secure approval from the government.
The total amount that has been fixed for the project to complete is $45000. The architecture fees and their compensation budget is included in the approximation budget. This is estimated to complete within 90 days.
M4 Methods and techniques used to create bridge foundations
After analysis of the techniques of creating the bridge foundation which requires a strong foundation supported by more bridge foundation techniques.
Few common topics of the bridge foundation techniques used in the subtropical region, lateritic residual soil, and chemical stabilization. These techniques are the most applied techniques that improve the mechanical and structural properties of construction site infrastructure.
According to the enhanced geo-technological engineering application, geotechnical engineering application is required to get enhanced to meet the string infrastructure, bridge foundation, and entire construction model (Martina Šopic*, 2019).
The common foundation techniques which are used for the entire traffic load and ensure the bridge safety in the construction of bridges and highways are spread footing foundation, pilling foundation, and drilled shafts foundation.
D3 Justification of the selection of specific features
It is to be justified that the construction industry is a risky industry in which we have to implement more site safety plans for managing the construction machine, equipment, and operations. As mentioned earlier, the construction methods and their relevant technologies help in supporting the number of fatalities to consult during the construction process. In solution to the specific features, proposed industrial infrastructure design models are supporting the models.
The health and safety concern during the construction should focus on the substantial workforce with the highest possibilities of the risks. Once the risks have been identified, their impacts are compared with the previous impacts. Then focus on the construction work without affecting the possibilities of hazards and risks. The selection of features is completely for the site structure and this will improve the protection against risks caused because of the equipment and machine failures, risks of trips, strips and falls, stability-related risks, and fire and explosion risks.