Course - HND in Construction and the Built Environment

Assignment - Developing the Mine and the logistics area

Unit 29 Geotechnics and Soil Mechanics delves into the foundation of construction: the ground itself. This HND in Construction and the Built Environment module equips you with knowledge of soil behavior, types of rocks, and how they influence construction projects. You'll gain skills in analyzing soil properties, assessing stability, and understanding factors like drainage and earthworks. This knowledge is crucial for designing safe, secure, and long-lasting buildings and infrastructure.

LO1: Review rock types, their formation and civil engineering

Task 1 a) State the three main classes of rock and outline the main features of their formation

Solution: The three main and major rock classes and main function of features of formation

Rocks are classified into three main types namely; Igneous, Metamorphic and sedimentary Igneous is formed through the crystallization of the partially or molten materials referred as magma. The magma erupts from exactly two places of formation referred to as asthenosphere and crust base which is above lithosphere subduction mostly at plate boundary that is convergent. The two subclasses that offer feature of Igneous are Plutonic (referred as Intrusive) and Volcanic (referred as extrusive). Therefore, Volcanic rocks form the surface of earth this cool and crystalize from the mass of magma that split from the volcano to the surface. When it is in the surface it is referred as the Lava. On the other hand, plutonic rocks are the formation from the magma that arises from the crystallization after cooling from beneath the earth surface. IN these thoughts it is never gets to earth surface. In regard to these for any plutonic rock to be exposed it needs to be uplifted technical while some overlying object materials is removed by erosion.

Sedimentary rocks are formed from the rough material on the surface of the earth, The term itself mean deposition which is the process of mass accumulation. Therefore, materials that compriseof erosion and weathering which are available in earth surface. This process of solidification of materials is known as lithification (meaning turning into the rocks) Cementation or Diagenesis like rocks from Volcano where sone sedimentary such as ignitions and plutonic are lithified to become sediments.

Metamorphic rocks are formed mostly when igneous rocks and sedimentary are exposed high rate of temperatures and high pressure, or even the two of them, deep below earth surface. This is done through a process referred to as Metamorphism that offers significant changes in the texture and mineralogy of rocks. The main rock, before the process is known as Protolith .The protolith is either sedimentary or igneous Rock.

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b) Give one example of how each type of rock is used in construction

Solution: Offer one example of each rock type utilized in construction

Igneous specifically Intrusive rocks are mainly used as stones for building s. Found in quarries and under surface of earth's and is in many types such as basalts, granite, and obsidian. Granite is at type of an igneous stone particularly Crystine in and hard and in texture formed in microclines or orthoclase and, quartz. Mostly is used for monuments buildings. It is a mostly formed through a mixture of feldspar, mica and quartz.

Sedimentary rocks particularlyLimestone is mainly used in the building and construction of because of strength and durability. Limestone is popular in landmark and architecture in world. This is because limestone is always available and one can cut easily into curving or blocks.

Metamorphic rocks specifically Marble which is widely utilizedin as a material for building and other indulged applications. Marble which is formed through metamorphism of limestone crystallization. Is used for designing in building and construction.

c) Briefly outline the Bowen Series of rock classification and indicate to what extent this can explain the weathering characteristics of rocks

Solution: An outline of Bowen Series classification of rock and indication of extent of explanation characteristic of weathering rocks

Bowen series aremainly a means of rocks categorization mostly the minerals of igneous silicate through temperature increase crystallizing them. In geology science rocks are classified in three different types sedimentary, igneous rocks, and metamorphic.
The representation of graphic of series that permit order visualization where crystallization of minerals in regard to the above property, the minerals with higher content are first in cooling and crystallize of magma, on the other hand lower one take time thus last in formation. Bowen series involve five principles of crystallization. Which include; when the melt cools, occurs the mineral crystallization remain in equilibrium thermodynamic. Secondly time and mineral crystallization increase, the change of composition of melt. Third principle indicate that first crystals showed equilibrium no longer on mass with formed composition, which dissolve a form other mineral. The fourth principles states that main minerals formed from igneous rocks are then categorized in two main categories series: including continuous and discontinuous series. Lastly a number series of supposed reactions from each magma originate from igneous rocks because of differentiation of magmatic.

d) What are the most important mechanical characteristics of rocks used in the following situations:

Solution: The most significant rocks mechanical characteristics used in the situations below:

i) as foundations for roads
The road construction with rocks in a certain country mostly depends with the extent on the history of geological of the country. For instance, Serbia, has a many of rocks of various technical and ages characteristics. Technical note indicates rock characteristics and rock aggregates with the use of standards of the nation (SRPS).

ii) as facings on the structures
The Joint Rocks Structures indicate the rock classes starting from igneous rocks, sedimentary rock and metamorphic rocks, invariably indicating a jointly formed structures to greater or lesser extent. Therefore, lamination and Stratification are the common structural appearance indicated by sedimentary rocks; on the other hand, crystalline structure have been greatly associated with igneous rocks and lastly the foliation structure is typically referred for metamorphic rocks.

iii) as concrete aggregate
Concrete aggregate rocks should be graded so as to be fit for concrete. Grading as the distribution of particle-size of an aggregate for concrete. Therefore, aggregates are supposed to be stored and handled in segregation of minimizes, prevention and degradation to contamination by substances deleteriously.

iv) as building stone.
Granite that is Fine-grained and stones of gneiss are utilized in heavy works of engineering like bridge building piers, monuments, and breakwaters. On the other hand, quartzite, granite and sand stones compact are utilized for work on masonry in areas of industrialization exposed to fumes and smoke.

e) Outline where soil is used as a construction material and compare this with alternative materials that could be used such as in a dam

Solution: An Outline of soil is utilizedas material for construction and compare it with the alternative materials that can be used in construction of either dam or others

Soil is used as Soil as foundation material in construction of dams, bridges, tunnels, walls, roads, and towers. It is also used in soft soil embankment, foundation heave, and as a construction material.

f) Explanation of difference in strength in between the rock mass and the similar material got from a quarry

Solution: The strength of rock depends on different factors as stated by (Paterson, 1978) that include type of rock and composition, rock size of grain, weathering of rock, density of rock and rate of porosity, loading rate, and stresses in confining F3 and F2, geometry, shape and size of spacemen test, anisotropy of rock, water pore saturation and pressure, apparatus and testing (end stiffness and effects), time and temperature.

g) How is this shown in the RQD assessment of rock strength?

Solution: Indication of how RQD assessment and application in rock strength

The RQD indicate the joint degree or rock fracture mass percentage measure, where 75% RQD or more showing the good quality and very hard rock which are less than fifty percent (50%) that indicate low quality rocks that are weathered.

h) Analyze case studies involving tunneling and the problems posed by the discontinuous nature of rock mass

Solution: The analysis of case studies that include the tunneling and challenges posed by nature of discontinuous of rock mass

Case study of Annex 13 -on tunnel which indicate that among complex and large railway work civil structures in and have impacts on relevant cost of overall infrastructure. The implication on direct implication complexity in tunnel of high number of parameters in technical factors affecting the cost that make practical tunnel which is very unique. In considering the large and wide range of configurations difference in tunnels take and limited project number of tunnelling developed every year in sector of railway in Europe.
Therefore, the study purpose on cost of unit rail, a particularly the case study is tailored in the investigation of the effects building material on construction of complex railway lines mainly nature of building materials. One of the major Challege that the case study tackled is the cost of the rock mass of construction in areas where strengthened stones lack. These hinders the fast growing of some countries due to heavy cost of these materials.

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LO2: Explore and classify soils to current codes of practice.

Task 2
a) Briefly explain what a brownfield site is and how this differs from other sites.

Solution: Explanation of brownfield site and its difference in other sites.

Generally, "brownfield" refers to land parcel which previously was utilized for purpose of industrial development and also contaminated by hazardous chemical low concentrations levels. A brownfield site is totally different from a site of superfund because of its less severely nature of contamination, and therefore not cleaned with funds from the federal.

b) How would you approach a ground survey in a brown filed site and show how this might differ from a ground survey on other sites.

Solution: Approach of ground survey as stated in brown filed site and indicatethe difference in from survey ground on other sites.

Conversion of Brownfield is an opportunity of cost-effective to risk-free combination the landscape SAP in the rebuild of a total harmonization and consolidation of all business SAP-related processes. The study research done to elaborate the difference of brown field and other was conducted and the results indicated that the only problem against a policy change and climate practice.

C. Explanation of differences occurring between undisturbed and disturbed samples of soils

Solution: Disturbed samples of soil sample (DS)occur particularly when natural condition's necessary texture, structure, content of natural water, density, or stress condition of soil is disturbed therefore the soil sample is referred as disturbed sample of soil. On the other hand, the sample that is undisturbed of soil (UDS) occurs when the soil remains intact on the above natural conditions

d. Outline the laboratory tests that can be done only on undisturbed samples

Solution: An outline test in laboratory that are only done on samples that re undisturbed
Sample Diameters laboratory for undisturbed soil sample The test on sample diameter indicate that less than 2.5" diameter of the soil is usually highly disturbed on condition's necessary texture, structure, content of natural water, density, or stress. The rest of the soil is undisturbed.

e.) Outline how soils are classified

Solution: An outline of classification of soils

The soils comprise of mineral mixtures and material organic, however are classified in regard to the mineral particles size. The main groups of textures are three namely, sandy, clay and silty. The sandy soil involves particles which are seen and noticed with eyes and gritty felt when touched.

f.) How is plasticity used in the classification of soils?

Solution: Uses of plasticity in soil classification

Soil Plasticity is the soil property which happens on deformation without fracturing or cracking. The clay soil should be used. Water presence of charges that are negative are available on clay particles surfaces. The molecules water is very much dipolar and therefore are attracted to each other.The chart on Plasticity is extensively utilized in fine grain classifying of soil. Significant in construction of highway. High plasticity index of Soil, mostly indicate a reduction market in bearing

g.) Discuss the sampling of soil in situ giving an example of the measurement of bulk density and also ofshear strength.

Solution: The discussion of soil sampling of in-situ and offering of example of measurement I shear strength and bulk density

The main purpose of soil exploration is offering Information that permit the consultants on geotechnical to offer recommendation on load capacity allowable for foundation. The samples of data collected from pits test are disturbed through volume density displacement from the main tube rather than device collection. The gravel presence mostly aggravates the disturbance of soil sample.

h. Discuss the relative merits of in situ testing and laboratory

Solution: The discussion of advantage of laboratory and in-situ testing

Test in Laboratory have very well planned controllable and defined boundary conditions therefore there is more theory of rationale at the interpretation, however it only test smaller soil volume. On the other hand, in situ tests which are very fast, larger soil volume test and therefore more than expected representative, but the model of testing interpretation is crude and empirical in general.

I.) Evaluate how much soil sampling is needed in a soil survey on a site and what are the dangers of too little or too much sampling?
Evaluation of amount of soil sampling requires in surveys of soil and stating the dangers of large or small sampling

Different studies indicate that sampling properly need at least 10 cores on every sample, and other times requires 15 cores, this depends on soil nature and area size of sample. Less number of cores can bring in result variability from various years of sampling.

LO3: Analyse soil properties determined by geotechnical procedures.

Task 3.
a.) Outline briefly how you would measure the following from an in-situ sample

Solution: Offering a brief outline of measuring of below in-situ samples
soil moisture content
The method standard of soil measurement content moisture in the sample using the method of thermogravimetric, which need the drying using oven of specific soil volume at 105 °C and also helps to determining the loss of weight.
bulk density and
Is done through estimation method or density on In-SituBulk of Soil: The determination of In-situ bulk soil density is using Equations. (4.72 &4.73) γ = (W s - W c)/V c.............. (4.72) V c = d 2 h/4.................... (4.73)
specific gravity
Specific determination of gravity is lab test conducted to enhance the gravity specific in soil through the use of pycnometer. It is the mass ratio of soil unit volume at certain temperature of volume mass of gas-free water distilled at a certain temperature.

b. Outline briefly a method of measuring shear strength in-situ and one method used in the laboratory. Discuss the limitations of this test with respect to the type of soil under test

Solution: Offering a brief outline of shear strength in-situ measurement and single method of laboratory

Shear strength is referred as soil property that impacts the cultivation performance of implements. The methods (limitation) Existing m of measuring the above property is indicated as unsuitable for topsoil cultivation because of difficulty getting sample of undisturbed. A method in the field to establish shear strength is referred as soil cylinder that is sheared in moment and torsion/angle-of-twist curve obtained.

c.) Briefly outline how soil compressibility is measured in the laboratory and discuss the importance of timein this measurement.

Solution: Outline of soil compressibility as indicated and measured in the stated laboratory and offering of its importance
Oil compressibility is established in the procedure of laboratory referred as constant composition expansion (CCE). The procedure, of oil in the cells of PVT is expanded through pressure reduction, and both soil increase volume and soil pressure decrease are measured.

d.) Outline the principle behind the California Bearing Test

Solution: Offering an outline of California Bearing test principles
The test of California bearing is how weighed and moisturized soil withstand standards pitons infiltrate and when test is performed. The basic principle in the testing is through enable the main entered when working in geotechnical procedures and enable able them to group and differentiate native materials various undisturbed types of samples of soil according to quality of levels and additionally contact respond with liquids or watery substances.

e.) State how the liquid limit and the plastic limit are measured in the laboratory and state the results we obtained from the laboratory tests carried out.

Solution: Establish the limit of liquid of plastic as it is measured in the stated laboratory and offer the results
The Liquid measured by the main sampler or engineer or is able to differentiate and classify soil types of in how they offered response to specific water amount added. A sampler needs to use a limit of water machine that assist then in the process of detecting of liquid amounts when soling the appropriate tests. The establishment of Plastic limit is done by use of repeatedly of soil the is wet plastic so as to get a roller especially when doing a test. Moisture's existence in soil plastic is known as limit of plastic. on the other hand, test conducted are liable to results either worst or best. At the time the measure of engineer limit of liquid and limit in plastic occurs when checking soil nature change. Therefore, lot of supplied water may result to abnormalities in test performance during the end.

f) Calculate the liquid limit and compare the reliability and reproducibility of this test to the standard test for plastic limit.

Solution: The results were offered for a test of limit liquid of a soil rich in clay. Calculations of liquid limit and also the compared reproducibility and reliability of the test to plastic limit on standard test. (there is a table for the question)
a .15÷25=0.6
0.6ˆ0.121 equal to 0.94
b. 19÷25=0.76
0.76ˆ0.121equal to 0.97
c .21÷25equal to 0.84
d. 26÷25=1.04
1.004×-204equal to -2.0502
1.24ˆ0.121 equal to 1.03

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LO4: Produce a proposal to address identified geotechnical weaknesses and problems.

Task 4
Address the problem of keeping the logistic area dry even during the highest tides. Occasionally tides as high as 7m above mean sea level area experienced here when there is a Spring tide

Stating the challenges, the kept in area of logisti at even highest tided. Mostly tides of &m and above the level of the sea are seen especially uin spring tides accompanied by strong shore winds

a.) Outline your solution and

Solution: Outline
The Tides are referred as behavior recording of the way raises of sea levels and falling of the same is affected by moon and sun and the way the earth revolves in orbit. The Keeping of areas logistic in dry are highly affected by tides high rate a thinking that they form flexibility. The reason is Earth rotates therefor3e easy to misplace objects at that moment. Nevertheless, the strong winds and tides occurs in a similar time the creatures in aquatic most likely are highly affected therefore further bring in death for many. Highest tides results to large destruction through outcomes of flooding which result to multiple death of both animals and humans therefore discouraging material movement utilized in water transport.

b.) Outline what the geotechnical weaknesses are within the logistics area

Solution: The outline of weakness of geotechnical logistics area
At the highest time of tides engineers or suppers try to limited the geotechnical principles applications and instead uses at the time of solving their problems technically. Therefor these becomes core challenging for engineers because of not utilizing the principles. The above referred principle are highly importantin regard to principal manner that is used especially when taking and checking information in regard to the effects of environment through in situ. Additionally, principles of geotechnical applied at the referred highest tides. The above principles help the engineers to understand the level of water in the ground and in specific magnitude

c. Briefly suggest the site survey needed

Solution: Suggestion of thesurvey site needed
The high tides consist of the water rising of its bodies, the surveys on hydrographic are highly useful and effective used method of survey. The survey assists engineers arise with helpful and useful answers that lessen the established occasional destructions mostly to human living around the water bodies.

D. show what foundations are needed to support and protect the area.

Solution: foundations requirein protecting and support the area

The Engineers use very strong materials that are unbreakable mostly in levels of foundation when building houses or constructing towers near the bridges or oceans. Therefore, the said engineers utilize sand soil in developing hard blocks of concretes and concrete pilers which are unbreakable at the time of high occurrence of tide. Additionally, engineers usually use the strong materials on steel which are neither affected in any kind of rust or which can result to tear and wear or which can result to high level of destructions. on the other hand, a very strong type of foundation results to bold and strong building and fixtures.

FAQ for Geotechnics and Soil Mechanics:

  • Q: What are the main types of rocks?
  • Q: How does rock formation impact civil engineering projects?
  • Q: Where can I find more information about rock types and their engineering applications?
  • Q: What are the different types of soil?
  • Q: What are "codes of practice" in soil classification?
  • Q: How do I learn about current soil classification codes?
  • Q: What are some common geotechnical procedures for soil analysis?
  • Q: Why is analysing soil properties important?
  • Q: How can I practice analysing soil data?
  • Q: What kind of geotechnical problems might a proposal address?
  • Q: What should a proposal for addressing geotechnical problems include?
  • Q: How can I develop a strong proposal?

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