Course - Higher National Certificate/Diploma in Engineering


Equip yourself with the scientific foundation for engineering in Unit 3: Engineering Science of your Higher National Certificate. This unit dives into core scientific principles and their applications in various engineering disciplines. Master the International System of Units (SI) for precise measurement. Learn to analyze data using software tools. Explore topics like forces, fluids, thermodynamics, material properties, and electrical circuits. By the end, you'll be adept at solving engineering problems with a strong scientific foundation.

Unit 3 Engineering Science

Assignment - Scientific Data and Material Properties

LO1: Examine scientific data using both quantitative and qualitative methods

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a) Describe SI units and prefix notation, ensure the correct SI units are used within this laboratory report.

Solution : SI units
To minimize misunderstanding with units, the SI unit is indeed an international system of measures that has been used internationally in scientific and engineering study (New England Journal of Medicine. 2022). Finding a shared unit system is essential because it allows people all around the globe to interpret calculations in a single set of units. SI of Units is implemented to ensure that the daily measures are similar and uniform around the globe. Standardizing certain metrics also helps to maintain them constant and precise, but it also aids society today trust in data. For example, weight was measured on a daily basis, and establishing uniformity on the meaning of the kilogram ensures that customers can believe that the business is actually supplying the mass which it claims to be giving (Shattuck, 2022). Similarly, obtaining reliable evidence on environmental issues, waste, even medical diagnoses is crucial for society since it fosters trust and enables for better decision-making.

The system can handle an infinite number of new quantities using coherent units. These are known as consistent derived units, because they may indeed be expressed as powers of such base units (Shattuck, 2022). Because the dimensions of coherent units were just useful for certain purposes, the SI includes twenty prefixes that, whenever applied to the name and symbol of such a coherently unit[s], generate twenty extra (non-coherent) SI units for about the same amount; such non-coherent have always been decimal. In the report, the use of SI units for thickness, diameter, and width uses mm or micrometer.

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B. Examine both quantitative and qualitative data and ensure appropriate software is used to give graphical representation including:

Solution: Quantitative and qualitative data examination & graph visualization

II: Calculation of the Young's Modulus for each material,

Solution: Young's Modulus calculations
Elasticity Young's Modulus (E):
Formula: E= ΔL/Δe
In which, ΔL is the "Change in Load (KN), and Change in Extension (mm) for the Δe as applied in the formula for this calculation.
Given that: L1 = 10KN, L2 = 25KN, e1 = 3.5mm, and e2 = 1.5 mm based on the data of this task. Now let us start the calculation for Young's Modulus (E):
E= ΔL/Δe=(25-10)/(3.5-1.5)=15/2= 7.5KN/mm
% eulongation = ( final length - initial gage length )/(initial gage length)*100= (5-4.5)/4.5=11.11%
Ferrous metal material:
E= ΔL/Δe=(25-10)/(50--9.5)=15/2= 0.25KN/mm
Non-Ferrous metal material:
E= ΔL/Δe=(25-10)/(40-2.5)=15/2= 0.35KN/mm
Non-metal material:
E= ΔL/Δe=(25-10)/(12.61-3.47)=15/2= 1.64KN/mm

III: Determining the approximate ultimate tensile strength for each material,

Solution: Approximate ultimate tensile strength
Ferrous metal material:
Load= 0.25KN/mm
σ_max = Pmax /A_0 =0.25KN/50=0.007N/mm²
Non-Ferrous metal material:
Ferrous metal material:
Load= 0.35KN/mm
Approximate ultiate tensile strength: σ_max = Pmax /A_0 =0.35KN/40=0.009N/mm²
Non-metal material:
Load= 0.35KN/mm
Approximate ultiate tensile strength: σ_max = Pmax /A_0 =1.64KN/50=0.033N/mm²

IV: Comparison quantitative and qualitative data gathered from the three specimens to theoretical data from authorised published resources and report your findings.

Solution: Quantitative and qualitative data of Ferrous metal, non-Ferrous metal, and Non-metal

Ferrous metal
Cast iron, ductile iron, aluminum alloys, as well as carbon steel, often known as structural steel, seem to be the most prevalent ferrous metals. It is indeed an alloy created by combining the latter plus carbon. Ferrous is a strong yet soft substance having high heat conduction that is tensile, malleable, robust, as well as strong.

Iron is present throughout all ferrous materials under certain shape rather than another. Steel has been the most prevalent ferrous metal, aside from iron. Steel has a great diversity due to its remarkable capability to produce alloys, including over a couple thousand types of metals (Levashov, 2020). A common misperception concerning ferrous metals seems to be that ferromagnetism defines them exclusively. Nevertheless, numerous steel kinds are also not ferromagnetic even though ferromagnetism is characterized by its compositional composition or by ferrous itself. To summarize a long story, iron elements weren't always ferromagnetic. And besides, among the most common steel kinds is non-magnetic and exhibits extremely low ferromagnetism. Furthermore, ferrous metals that would not mainly contain, including such nickel and cobalt, exist.

So, apart magnetism, which other distinguishing features do ferrous metals have? When there are so many distinct forms of ferrous metals, finding areas of agreement excluding the reality that each incorporate iron is difficult (Levashov, 2020) Nevertheless, due to the high concentration of iron, ferrous metals often are stronger compared to the non-ferrous materials? Whenever reacts with oxygen, the mass of ferrous metals may generate iron oxides. Yet or even, alloying metals including such nickel could prohibit this. Moreover, these materials have high yield strength and also a high hardness.

Whereas ferrous metals have a wide range of applications, non-ferrous metals are favored in many circumstances. For example, airplane and vehicle bodywork could advantage from chromium steel's high enhanced corrosion resilience (particularly if strengthened), but owing to size and cost, aluminum is a preferable alternative. This does not rust in the classic sense, but rather generates a special covering of aluminium oxides when contacted to our environment (Levashov, 2020). Although there are steel kinds that function on a similar principle, such as weathered steels, typically seem to be more costly and weigh significantly more. This specimen has gauge length of 50 mm and diameter of 9.50 mm which is much higher compared to non-ferrous material specimen. This material has Elasticity Young's Modulus (E) 0.25KN/mm.

Nonferrous metals are all those that do not have a large quantity of metal within themselves but don't have iron as their metal surface. Such metals have limited good thermal stability and suffer from warm shortening, which would be the tendency to produce fractures and breaking at extreme temperatures.

Nonferrous metals can indeed be present in pricey jewelry, but iron-containing metals are typically utilized in low-cost jewelry. And it's not just for the larger monetary worth. Since they rust as well as wear, ferrous metals are really not ideal for jewelry manufacture. Although combining nickel or chromium might enhance the composition, nickel is exceedingly allergic, and chromium tends to make steel tricky to figure with.

Finally, there are several other distinct categories of elements that may be loosely grouped into two groups: ferrous and non - ferrous. Nevertheless, a deeper examination of these groups reveals that there is a wide range of metals and that it is nearly hard to make broad conclusions about any one category. This specimen has gauge length of 40 mm and diameter of 2.5 mm which is much higher compared to non-ferrous material specimen. This material has Elasticity Young's Modulus (E) 0.35KN/mm.

Non metal
A nonmetal seems to be a chemical element that has low population density, low hardness, but medium to high electronic configuration. Nonmetals do have metallic, translucent, or colorful look, with around half of them solid as well as 50% gas; practically all metals, on the other hand, are silvery-gray substances.

The bulk of identifying responses throughout qualitative analysis for non-metallic ions mixtures are oxidation-reduction. The outcome of such responses is defined as the variation in the conventional reactive sites of the respective reactions. The oxidation state of a fluid is governed by the characteristics of the oxidizing as well as reducer as well as their volumes throughout the solution. In the report, the nonmetal material has 50mm for the gauge length, width of 12.61 mmand for the thickness is about 3.47 mm based on the given data and this is much higher value compared to the specimen.

c) Investigate and explain how the application of a scientific method impacts on the rigour of data analysis.

Solution: Application of a scientific method impacts on the rigour of data analysis

The scientific method, in general, refers to competent research practice. This implies that others will be able to reproduce the research and comprehend exactly what you accomplished throughout your tests. The goal of this strategy is to reduce bias in topic collection and subsequent processing. It should be about establishing the optimum sample number for the research and you'll have enough statistical ability to know if you are producing false positives as well as missing out along false - negative. It is about collecting data that has a high likelihood of being duplicated in labs as well as other labs.

The rigor of scientific conduct seems to be the foundation of such scientific process, including standard rules for research setup, data processing, including openness, as well as additional challenges such as publication and financing demands. Recognizing how to deal with these challenges is essential for a successful scientific career. This course examines real-life instances of cognitive neuroscience at variety of career phases for concrete exercises of the obstacles as well as solutions in doing rigorous science. This also concentrates on the personal and social, research - based, as well as technical ability needed to fix different challenges in scientific rigor, including such what to do because you can't reproduce an authored result.

Check-retest as well as parallel reliability testing are often used to assess stability. When an instrument is presented to the same persons more than once under similar circumstances, test-retest accuracy is classified. A statistical comparison is done between the test ranks of each participant for each of the times they have completed it. This seems to be an example of the tool's dependability. Parallel-shape durability (or substitute reliability) essentially similar to check-retest consistency, except that participants in subsequent tests are provided a specific form of the original tool.

Evaluating how thoroughly the concerns of content validity were considered in a study is indeed a vital ingredient in particular analysis and influences the choice on whether to adopt the research results into study. Rigour in quantitative research is evaluated by assessing the validity as well as accuracy of the devices and techniques used in the investigation. A high-quality research study will show how all of these variables were handled. It will really assist you in determining the validity and trustworthiness of the study or not if you must use the outcomes in the field of study.

D. Analysis of data further using both quantitative and qualitative methods

Solution: Qualitative research is a rapidly expanding field of study that spans fields and significant event. It is indeed a complex, and sometimes baffling, collection of terminology, concepts, including premises that includes the approach employed the idealism, post-structuralism, as well as a wide range of cultural, critical, and interpretative qualitative research viewpoints and approaches (Levashov, 2020). Under necessity, qualitative research somehow doesn't relies on quantitative values, but rather on study that yields descriptive information. It encompasses a variety of views, paradigms, and procedures, and qualitative research might mean multiple activities into each epistemic framework.Since qualitative research encompasses so many modes of investigation, there are perhaps certainly as many misunderstandings regarding qualitative research technique as interpretations (Levashov, 2020). There seem to be, nevertheless, certain similarities between the many types of qualitative research.

Whereas quantitative research focuses on measures that implement concepts, qualitative research employs narration explanations in which the ideas are information which can be simplified to figures. Because of the loss of quantification, statistical analysis for trends, averages, relevance, as well as probability are no longer applicable. Consequently, the qualitative researcher should employ textual and verbal information to rebuild and interpret experience, as well as to discover themes, throughout the hope that future concept, hypothesis, or relationship may be revealed in ways that broaden the comprehension. The qualitative researcher is indeed a data integrator who gives the facts significance and content. As a result, eliminating investigator bias could be impossible or even undesirable.

Qualitative research somehow doesn't conflict with or replace quantitative independent research in terms of value. However, when reductive quantitative techniques lose depth, texture, as well as context, descriptive study may target variable. Individual research has contributed significantly to the study.

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Learning Outcome 2: Explore the characteristics and properties of engineering materials


A: Why skateboard truck casting is failed within 3 months of manufacture rather than minimum of 15 months from manufacture.

Solution: The longevity of skateboard truck casting would depend on the material properties it contains and how the user use if often. One of the biggest drawbacks of using hysteresis in skateboard truck casting seems to be the inefficiencies it produces in components with fluctuating magnetism, such as power transformer( Stickle, 2015). It is one of the major causes of losses there. Such losses rise with regularity, necessitating advanced techniques as competition intensifies, up to the point where magnetized inner core becomes counterproductive at extremely high frequencies.

The skateboard truck casting may have had small chips; therefore it collapsed at three months of construction rather than the span of 6 months. Since a tiny ramp seems to have a smooth finish, the deck will only last longer. There seems to be still less pressure in overall, once you're at a position where you could do some spectacular flips whilst going upon that coping. Skateboard decks can also last for 2 weeks until 6 months, because when the user skates and the design. A deck can endure for years if you simply ride little ramps; nevertheless, skilled street skaters may damage a deck within days.

B: review elastic and electromagnetic hysteresis in different materials and relate your findings

Solution: Hysteresis material

The magnetic mobility of iron molecules combined their impedance towards movement cause hysteresis loss. According to one magnetism theory, every particle in magnetic properties seems to have an N pole as well as a S pole (Berthier, 2013). Such magnetism balance one another out if somehow the particles get randomly distributed with the N and S poles in throughout all directions, as in Task 2 (a), and indeed the material is really not magnetized (Figure 1). Whenever a series circuit with such a current running along is wrapped around at the magnetic core, the particles of the center automatically arrange their poles according to electromagnetisms." Since alternating current is employed, the direction thru the coil was constantly shifting, and so the magnetism field is rapidly changing lanes. As a result, the particles in the center were continually moving in order to align in the correct orientation. They collide with one other as they travel, producing frictional heat.

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A: Carryout research into the structural and mechanical properties of metals and non-metals go on to describe this relationship of how the structural properties give metals and non-metals their mechanical properties.

Solution: The structural and mechanical properties of metals and non-metals

Metal structure means that high strength, flexibility, especially melting point of elements, as well as hardness, thermal expansion. Metals with high tensile strength have atoms that are bonded together using strong bonds. Non-metal structures are often fragile and have little or no metallic sheen. The majority of nonmetals have the ability to readily acquire election.

B: Explain the meaning of the following terms, describing if they have mechanical, physical, thermal, or electrical and magnetic properties.

Solution Meaning of the following terms:

Density: Density is one of the most basic physical qualities of any substance. Fabric density is defined as mass for every unit of volume. It really is defined as a quantitative relationship of fabric mass volume. This is indicated by the letter "p." It is measured in kilograms per square meter (kg/m3) in the metric system. Density is important in numerous calculations since most designs are bound by size or weight.

Elasticity: Its material has been its ability to return to its original form following deformation whenever load or pressure is applied.

Hardness: Hardness: Hardness is indeed a fabric's resistance to pressure absorption or stretching. The capacity of a substance to resist scratches, rubbing, chopping, or piercing is referred to as its hardness.

Toughness: Toughness seems to be a fabric quality that allows it to withstand shock or impact. Capability to absorb tensile stress up to the point of breakage.

Ductility: The elongation and decrease of space of a sample material examined to failure under stress is widely used as a measure of fabric tensile properties. A material's ductility is a quality that permits it to be pulled out into a thin wire.

Malleability: Plasticity is defined as a fabric's plastic reaction to compression load. A material's malleability is a feature that allows it to be beaten or curled forming sheets of various types and sizes.

Brittleness: It is a physical feature that allows it to survive persistent deformation.

Plasticity: It does have a material that may sustain persistent deformation without being brittle.

Electrical conductivity: This is a measurement of a material's capacity to transport a current or the quantity of electrical current it could really carry.

Thermal conductivity: The material's capacity to dissipate heat is measured.

C: Explain the types of degradation found in metals and non-metals.

Solution: Types of degradation found in metals and non-metals

To begin, what is degradation? It really is the procedure with which a metal and nonmetal gets deteriorated whenever released to the atmosphere as well as material loss occurs. Corrosion is another term for it. Corrosion of metals and steel via moisture is a frequent instance ( Stickle, 2015).

The following are examples of common corrosion in metals and nonmetals:

Uniform attack: it really is an improved electrochemical process that occurs evenly across the body, causing the metal to weaken or eventually fail.

Crevice corrosion is induced by a tiny volume of stagnated liquid created by a seam, a crack, or ground deposits.

Pitting corrosion causes holes in metal or nonmetal. It is indeed a type of subtle corrosion that involves perforation or a little percentage of weight loss throughout the material.

Selective leaching is a corrosion-based method that removes one specific metal from such a solid alloy. One instance is the elimination of zinc from a copper alloy.

Elastic hysteresis is described as the variation in between elastic potential energy of a material under a certain stress and indeed the energy taken to construct that tension within this element( Stickle, 2015). The energy that is generated is represented as friction force throughout the presence of energy together in materials as during transporting state of such testing cycle.

Electromagnetic hysteresis occurs when an exterior magnetic field is functionally connected via power energy to a ferromagnetic substance such as iron, and the dipoles match with it. However, whenever the field is withdrawn, the aligning is kept, and the body becomes magnetized.

FAQ for Geotechnics and Data Analysis

  • Q: What kind of scientific data will we be examining?
  • Q: How do we use quantitative and qualitative data together?
  • Q: What are some common methods for analyzing scientific data in geotechnics?
  • Q: What types of engineering materials will we focus on?
  • Q: What are the key characteristics and properties of soils and rocks?
  • Q: How do these characteristics and properties impact civil engineering projects?

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