Qualification - Higher National Diploma in Computing and Business (RQF)

Unit Name - Business Intelligence

Unit Number - Unit 14

Assignment Title - Design an Intelligent System for Business Organization

Learning Outcome 1: Discuss business processes and the mechanisms used to support business decision- making.
Learning Outcome 2: Compare the tools and technologies associated with business intelligence functionality.
Learning Outcome 3: Demonstrate the use of business intelligence tools and technologies.
Learning Outcome 4: Discuss the impact of business intelligence tools and technologies for effective decision- making purposes and the legal/regulatory context in which they are used.


This Assignment aims to examine the concept of business processing, define the tools and technologies associated with business intelligence functionality and demonstrate an understanding of a given problem for effective decision-making.

Executive Summary
The report is an attempt to include a comprehensive yet concise study of business intelligence which includes elements like business processes, business information, information systems, and business technologies. The main purpose of this review is to recognize a framework that utilizes business intelligence to manage business information in a manner that enhances the organisation's performance and growth. The endeavour offers extensive information, on account of the need to examine and see the data pertinent to the business processing and the tools & technologies associated with business intelligence functionality. The prospect to discuss a system that effectively applies to a specific issue in a somewhat friendlier manner so that entities will be able to take strategic decisions in subsequent seasons for business enhances the report's coverage scope. For a quick brief, Business Intelligence encompasses the methods and approaches that companies are using to analyze company information (data). Business intelligence tools offer the past, present, and future views of the corporate operating activities.

Business Scenario:
Many companies has been using information systems for many years ago. These companies used many systems such as electronic archiving, employee time keeping, accounting, warehouse control system, delivery, and other systems. During these years, they became have a large amount of data. However, it has not yet benefited from this data. You are working in a company; it needs to design a system that uses business intelligence to take advantage of this big data in developing the
business and performance of the company.

Job/Role Position:
You are working as a data analyst in a business company. One of the most important functions required of you is to analyse the big data that the company has stored during the many years of its work in order to obtain knowledge contribute to support the decision.

Assignment Brief:

You are require to produce a comprehensive report that include the following:

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1- The Business Process and supporting process have many conditions. Examine using examples these conditions.


Business process, Supporting process and Conditions

The business process is a sequence of steps which facilitates a stakeholder groups to undertake actions to accomplish a substantive objective. Every step in the business process represents an allocated job to the persons involved. It is the basic structure for a series of similar ideas like business process analysis (BPA), business process management (BPM), business process automation, etc. In much simpler words, we can understand business process as a collection of related tasks that ends when a product (good or service) is delivered to a customer. A business process can also be explained as a sequence of tasks and activities which will achieve an enterprises strategic objective after it is concluded. (Trieu, 2017)

Support processes are procedures whose primary concern is to make sure that the vital processes and the organization's business services work efficiently. These are processes which integrate the implementation and resource management of the operations embedded throughout the main procedures, i.e. the processes of business organization. Such procedures could even unquestionably be called as cross-processes, such that they make a significant contribution to the attainment of goals among different projects or systems of the company. They are like help systems which may not produce goods or services explicitly, though are used to promote or support the implementation of organizational or project management.

The numerous conditions for an ideal business and support processes are:
• They must be finite- A sound business procedure has a definite point of origin and point of finish. There must be fixed lot of steps in it. There must not be any ambiguity as when to start the business/supporting process or end it. For example,
• The processes must create value: The processes must seek to turn value development into functional projects, and such process has no phase in the cycle solely for its own. In other words, unless there is no value added part in the direction, then such step should not prevail.
• They can be repeated easily: A business process and its supporting process must be able to be executed for as many numbers of times as required. There structure must not be one that they can only be applied a single time.
• The processes should be flexible: These processes must have a built-in structure that makes this open to adjust and is therefore not static. If there is a perceived area for development, the mechanism enables the transition to be implemented within the internal steps of process without impacting the stakeholders as frequently and functionally.

Let us consider an example to understand these conditions. The situation here is bringing an employee onboard the company. It shall begin with preparing & handing out the right paperwork. The next step is assigning a role to them. It is followed by arranging their system administrations and tech-access along with getting the workstation ready. The final step would be the induction program to introduce them to their colleagues and seniors. Now, here, the steps of getting the employee onboard are finite. The starting point is completing their paperwork and ends with their induction. The entire process creates a value as in bring a human resource asset into organisation in a smooth and friendly manner. The same process can be repeated regularly for every employee in every cycle. Whereas the process must be flexible, i.e. suppose while appointment but before induction, the employee must be given training of some sort, then this process must be adjusted to provide for that training.

Another example shall be the business procurement process. The first step is placing the requisition order. The next step is selecting the vendor. It is followed by issuing the purchase order. Then the invoice is received and reconciled with the purchase order. The final step is creating the trade payables account. In this case also, the steps for procurement process are fixed. The first and the final steps are clearly defined. The same process can be applied every time for any procurement as well as procure of any product making it highly repeatable. The entire process is aimed at purchasing and receiving inputs in an organized manner with no confusions. This is value addition for each step. And the entire process can be changed in a given situation. Like in case of covid-19, vendor selections are one online. The process is entirely same but flexible enough to change to e-procurement from traditional processes. (Chang, 2016)

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2- There are three type of data in the organizations. Differentiate between unstructured and semi structured data.

Different types of data

The Big Data manages enormous measurement and execution of the information. It includes huge volume and variety of data. Thus, it is classified into three categories.


Structured data

Semi-structured data

Unstructured data


Structured data are data the components of which may be addressed for making successful study.

(Indeck, 2019)

Semi-structured data is data that does not exist in a static database but has other operational attributes that make the study simpler. (Indeck, 2019)

Unstructured data is a data that really isn't pre-defined ordered or does not really have a standardized data format, and this is not a suitable match for a relational database management system. (Indeck, 2019)

Means of database technology

It is organized by means of relational database table.

This type of data is based on RDF/XML.

This data is organized by binary as well as character data.

Scalability & Flexibility

Since it is dependent on schema, it is less scalable as well as less flexible.

It is less scalable and flexible than the unstructured data.

This type of data is highly flexible & scalable than other data's.

Managing transactions

It is preferred in multi-tasking process as transactions involved are matured with concurrency techniques.

The transactions here are adapted from database management system but no concurrency (not matured).

This data has no concurrency and no management of transaction.

Performance of query

There is structured query allowing complex joinings & high performance.

Queries are possible only over anonymous nodes and there is low performance.

For this data, only textual queries are possible and hence lowest level of performance amongst the three.


Relational database

XML data

Word, pdf's, etc.

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3- There are many applications using in business process. Evaluate the advantage and disadvantage of using these applications. 

Business Process Applications

A BPM application is an instrument that enables company to understand, automate, optimize, and enhance their repetitive business functions. Applications for business processes normally comprise of a configurable electronic format to accumulate organized data, as well as an algorithmic work - flow of data processing activities.

Advantages of using the applications are:
• Integration-friendly: This software's are easy to integrate into the business & its functions, therefore, improving collaborations among various teams. (Hsu, 2019)
• Risk reduction: These applications help to avoid and solve constraints and inaccuracies thus limiting the risk.
• Agility: Optimized processes lead to better agility in hierarchical operations. Greatly reduced mistakes, slowdowns and redundancy make response time faster than ever.
• Improvement in efficiency: In BPM software, detailed platforms provide a panoramic view of performance characteristics. It allows management to make sure shorter response times, and high degree of efficiency with reduced errors.
• Easier interface: A simplistic design and an uncomplicated structure with simple and clear data entry system make fast processes.

Disadvantages of the applications are:
• Implementation of application: Manual reports are usually easier to manage than computerized accounting software and can be more versatile. An organization would also require some initial assistance setting up applications for the accounting which can be expensive as well as time consuming.
• Higher price: Although the prices are not quite high, but they are relatively higher than a manual paper-based system. With updated technologies, they have to be updated regularly for which the service provider may charge extra fees.
• Support services: The applications shall require regular maintenance and may be difficult to understand by every employee. So, the service provider has to be regularly called for assistance as well as yearly maintenance which might not be possible always or instantly as and when such requirement arises.
• Real-time usage might be possible: There are certain types of business applications which require internet to operate. In situations where an internet connection is not possible or is not available, the organization might not be able to use the software no matter how good it is. (Hsu, 2019)

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4- In Organizations there are three levels of management, operational, tactical and strategic.

Compare the types of support for business decision-making at every level and contrast the range of information systems and technologies are used.

Level of management and types of information system

Basis Strategic Level Tactical Level Operational Level
Level of management They are the top level of managers or the top executive of the organization responsible for long term strategic planning and decisions. They are the divisional or unit managers, usually the mid level of management or managers responsible for overall operations. They are the lower level of staffs and deal with operational planning responsible for day-to-day operation processes.

Types of data used This level uses unstructured data The tactical level managers use semi-structured data. This level utilizes the structured data.

Range of information The data provided to them is small but relevant and precised in form of charts, graphs, etc.
(Petrovic, 2017) This level of management has moderate level of data and usually works upon information presented in tabular form.
(Petrovic, 2017) They work on high volume of data to process them to noteworthy information. (Petrovic, 2017)
Nature of reports Occasional reports in summarised form Periodic reports Transaction oriented reports and hence daily reports
Types of Informations Systems (IS) tools Executive Information System (EIS), Expert System, Enterprise resource planning (ERP), etc. Management Information System (MIS), Decision Support System, etc. Transactional Process System (TPS), Office Automation System (OAS), etc.
Nature of IS interface User-friendly with graphics Computer-operated plus additional monitoring tool for operational level. Computer-operated

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5- Analysing data, decision-making are the most important business intelligence functionality. Justify, with specific examples, the key features of this business functionality.

Features of Business functionality

The key features of data analytics and decision making as business intelligence functionality include:

• Data processing: Characteristics of data processing facilitate the collection and organization of original data in order to generate relevance. Simulating the data takes large volume of data and exhibits them in a flowchart or graph. That tends to make it readable and easy to analyze for user groups attempting to make judgments using that information. As an example, manufacturing firms, frequently monitor latency, downtime, and job backlog for specific machines and instead evaluate the data to help schedule the load of work such that the machines perform nearer to full ability. (Halonen, 2016)

• Predictive analysis: Predictive analytics analyses the information and make forecasts about what could possibly happen. Predictive analytics importance ought to be evident when implemented excellently - when we recognize anything about the coming years, we seem to have more opportunities to influence that prospect, and at least be prepared for it as aspect of our decision-making process. For example, applications for credit scoring anticipate probable bad debts, and processes for managing prices and revenues anticipate optimum rental prices to maintain occupancy capacity and gains. (Halonen, 2016)

• Reporting: Reporting features keep clients focused on the business. The real-time reporting collects and transmits information minute-by-minute, usually in an adaptive dashboard system. That helps consumers to make fast choices in circumstances which are constrained by time, and also to be much more organized and far more efficient in a world that runs at light pace. For example, ranking reports helps to see ranking across multiple dimensions or dashboards helps to see multiple reports in one place with help of multiple tabs to give a real-time view of business in charts, diagrams and other kinds of information reports. (Halonen, 2016)

6- Business Intelligence has many tools and techniques, determine with examples these tools and techniques. 

Tools and techniques of Business intelligence:

The tools and techniques of business intelligence are:

• Analytics: Analytics is a technology of business intelligence, involving the analysis of available information to take out evocative patterns and correlations. This is a common BI strategy because through data-driven judgments, it helps companies to better consider the data they provide, and generate inherent value. For example, a marketing agency might use analytics to develop categories of customers that have been extremely likely to be converted to new clients, and call center agents use voice analysis tools to predict consumer viewpoint, enhance customer service and also for quality control reasons. A real world example would be the SAP business intelligence. (Ramesh, 2020)

• AI & machine learning: Artificial intelligence (AI), particularly machine learning, has matured into an effectively vital component of the business modern age. Throughout the history researchers used to conduct very repetitive and boring activities, which were also consuming their time, in order to undertake research. Through artificial intelligence, everyone will now see and grasp regression analysis and product use in a couple of moments, helping us to divide further. For example, Yellowfin BI is currently used by corporate which uses machine learning.

• Digital dashboards: Dashboards are easy to read real-time user interface, which displays the current status in a graphical form. A digital dashboard is an automated monitoring platform often used to construct engaging, pictorial description of the information from a host of references which include databases or other online services to evaluate significant corporate statistics and results of its operations. In the current corporate world, Microstrategy offers powerful dashboarding.

• OLAP: Online analytical processing (OLAP) is a technique for addressing different-dimensional complicated issues. OLAP's most significant value is its multivariate attribute, which allows analysts to know issues from different angles. OLAP can be used to accomplish things such as financial planning, assessment of CRM data and financial forecasts.

• Cloud technology: In latest days, cloud-based technology has advanced dramatically and massively impacts the corporate world. Today, thanks to its simplicity and simple to use features, many businesses are heading towards it. Cloud-based infrastructure provides reduced cost and greater versatility that enables teams to operate together effortlessly. For example, QlikSense is a BI tool which company can use from any device at any time. It can store ad process information on cloud server to give right analysis to organizations in real-time. (Wani, 2018)

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I would focus on building a new tool which is similar to the pivot function in Microsoft Excel but is more presentable and can handle complex data and be used for calculations and analysis. There would be reports of the analysis done. The report would have a better user interface and much simpler to understand. The tool would have multiple dashboards for comparison of reports. There would be an auto-email function so that monthly reports are sent to all stakeholders. The users of the tool would have remote accessibility which is an important need in the post corona virus pandemic world. Employees working from home or anywhere in the world can input data or extract information as per their specific access positions. The top management would be able to see user information of the employee who have added or modified any data in the tool.

It should be noted that the above BI Tool is for an environment like a Government organisation where the database is immense and can sway the users if needful reports are not presented. Government organisations maintain data of millions and billions of people and data privacy is a critical requirement in the organisation.

My designed tool shall fulfil the needs of data privacy of the Government as well. All past year records shall be removed from the current database but shall be stored separately on Cloud network to be accessible anytime. Thus, the tool would serve multiple user needs.







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Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria




LO1 Discuss business processes and the mechanisms used to support business decision-making

D1 Evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of using application software as a mechanism for business processing.

P1 Examine, using examples, the tens 'Business Process' and 'Supporting Processes'.

M1 Differentiate between unstructured and semi-structured data within an organisation.

LO2 Compare the tools and technologies associated with business intelligence functionality

D2 Compare and contrast a ramie of information systems and technologies that can be used to support organisations at operational, tactical and strategic levels.

P2 Compare the types of support available for business decision-making at varying levels within an organisation.

M2 Justify, with specific  examples, the key features of business intelligence functionality.

LO3 Demonstrate the use of business intelligence tools and technologies

D3 Provide a critical review of the design in tents of how it meets a specific user or business requirement and identify what customisation has been integrated into the design.

P3 Determine, with examples, what business intelligence is and the tools and techniques associated with K.

P4 Design a business intelligence tool, application or interface that can perform a specific task to support problem-solving or decision-making at an advanced level.

M3 Customize the design to ensure that it is user- friendly and has a functional interface.

LO4 Discuss the impact of business intelligence tools and technologies for effective decision-rrei5ng purposes and the legaVregulatoty context in which they are used

D4 Evaluate how organisations could use business intelligence to extend their target audience and make them more competitive within the market, taking security legislation into consideration.

P5 Discuss how business intelligence tools can contribute to effective decision-making.

P6 Explore the legal issues involved in the secure exploitation of business intelligence tools.

M4 Conduct research to identify specific examples of organisations that have used business intelligence tools to enhance or improve operations.

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