Qualification - Higher National Diploma in Computing
Unit Name - Computing Research Project
Unit Number - Unit 13
Unit reference number - T/615/1639
Unit level - Level 5
Unit Credit - 30
Assignment Title - Digital Wellbeing
Learning Outcome 1: Examine appropriate research methodologies and approaches as part of the research process.
Learning Outcome 2: Conduct and analyse research relevant to a computing research project.
Learning Outcome 3: Communicate the outcomes of a research project to identified stakeholders.
Learning Outcome 4: Reflect on the application of research methodologies and concepts.
Digital wellbeing is the topic that deals about control the amount of time spending in front of web, mobile devices as well as technology. While the excessive use of technology, it will harm for human being. For limiting the damages due to the over use of technologies, digital wellbeing strategies have been established. This will helpful to take control use of technologies as well as establishing boundaries that offers downtimes as well as space. Technology is not bad. But it will provide harmful effect when using the device excessive.
Digital wellbeing is the concept used by researchers, health professionals and manufacturers of devices for describing when people interact with technology, experience that support physical and mental health in measureable way.
Assignment Brief: You currently work for an IT Department in a company and your manager has asked that you investigate the subject of wellbeing for its staff. The range of topics discussed could cover the following:
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• How to find the balance towards a healthy relationship with devices?
Solution: Research problem statement
Technology plays major role in the society. It offers various benefits for different sectors such as education, healthcare, automobile and so on. More and more technologies are emerging in information Technology. It offers various interactive features, flexibility, and easy access. Due to its, attractive features user are spending more time with the digital devices. Even though it provides, more advantages to users it also it gives some health issues. The objectives of the research is find the impact of digital technologies on human wellbeing.
The objective of the research is to analyse the impact of digital technologies for the wellbeing of human in future. The analysis will find the positive advantages of the digital technologies. It also finds the negative impacts for using those technologies.
The analysis will find whether the digital technology will provide negative impact or positive impact.
Hypothesis 1 : Is digital technology will impact positive for the wellbeing of human in future
H0: Yes, it will create positive impact
H1: No, it will create positive impact
Hypothesis 1 : Is digital technology will impact negative for the wellbeing of human in future
H0: Yes, it will create negative impact
H1: No, it will create negative impact
Balance towards a healthy relationship with devices
Digital wellbeing app
The main objective of the wellbeing app is to use the technologies and devices in such a way that it promotes healthy usage of app as well as assisting for healthy life style. The objective of the app or technology is to respect the time of the person in valuable way. Some of the companies are developing app to keep track of amount time spent on app (Sherri Gordon 2019). This results are useful for app users for limiting the unwanted screen time with the technologies.
Looking blue colour screen before going to bed create deplete and cortisol. It prevents users entering into deep sleep. This is one of the foremost factors for insomnia. Optimal solution is required to prevent such situation.
Blue light filters
The alternative option is to turn off the blue screen is shift the mobile phone into night mode. The name for this mode may get vary for smart phone and operating system. The mode changes the screen to slightly warmer hue as well as reduces the amount of blue light
One of the strategies is to prevent from the addiction of smart phone is for enabling the grayscale. This mode is less attractive to use and simultaneously it controls the more usage of smart phone. The smartphone such as Android has the facility to switch to gray scale option through accessibility menu.
Optimization of digital wellbeingis related with multiple components such as
• Limiting the amount of screen time in terms of minutes or hours in day or week
• Eye strain of the devices users should be reduced (Valkenburg et al 2006). Dark panels that over the special lenses as well as screens that prevents eye strain through the lights go over glasses for reducing glare. Recommendations and suggestions are also given for reducing the resolution of screen and keep maintaining the distance between screen and human eye for resting eyes.
• It is important to have awareness on unforeseen mental health impacts due to the technologies. Technologies like Facebook, social media and Instagram impact high on metalhealth. Over usage of internet increases anxiety, depression, ADHD, impulsiveness and poor time management.
• It is important to have more physical activities as well as n nutrition. Various technologies have developed for helping users of devices to keep track of health conditions, level of fitness and so on.
• Support for healthy sleep patterns that prevent eye strain for device users. Users can enable certain features of the devices like changing the contrast of screen as well as switching to grayscale. iphone has the feature for reminding users to go to bed at certain time.
Tools developed for digital wellbeing
The following are tools that developed for digital wellbeing such as
• Website blocker tools that enable blocking of web sites at all times or certain time intervals for reducing distractions as well as increasing productivity. Examples for such website blockers tools are cold Turkey etc.
• Usage dashboards that indicates the usage history on apps, amount of time spent and so on. Android OS has the feature to display dashboards.
• Timers in Apps that restricts amount of time spend on certain application as well as web sites per day. It will be helpful for limiting the time spend on various applications or web sites.
• Google Shush is feature for switching te devices into do not disturb mode when the device screen place down. Google Wind Down is another feature for flipping screen into gray scale for specified bed time.
• Are tech companies responsible for the health, safety and wellbeing of users?
Solution: Tech companies responsible for the health, safety and wellbeing of users
Tech companies are also playing an important role for the wellbeing of their products users. Google launched tool for Android known as Digital wellbeing that used to keep track of device usages as well as setting limiters. It realises another feature such as stop watch. The features will display stop watch on the screen. It indicates the time that the user spent with the device. The following diagram depicts the stop watch of Google.
Google' another feature is screen with bubble activity. The volume of the bubbles represent the time that the user spent with the device. Users are seeing the graphical representation; it will easily depict the current usage of device in an efficient manner. People are using digital technologies without any control. The illustration of such activities will control users of devices as well as it alerts users for control the usage of devices.
The dashboard of the android pie is depicted below:
It shows the total amount spent for uses with the device. it also give the graphical representation for each app usage.
The main objective of the digital wellbeing feature is not only limit the use of digital devices. It motivates the users of digital devices to use the technologies in meaningful and efficient manner to attain best knowledge.
Android pie, digital wellbeing can be activated via open -→setting ------→digital wellbeing
Limiting time spend on app
Timers are used to limit the time spending on apps. While activating the timers, the device keep track of apps and its usage throughout day as well as it alerts when it reaches the limit. The icon of the app will be greyed out and the system will give message that the app cannot be opened for the following day. It can be deactivated when it is not necessary. The following setting can be performed for Android to enable timer.
» Digital wellbeing-----→dashboard
» App-→set limit
» Default times are 15 min, 30 min as well as 1 hour
» User can customize the timer
» App will be used until the specified time limit
App timer can be deactivated with the following options
The disabled app displayed in gray colour. Selecting learn more option, while clicking on the app. Set the desired time limit from the dashboard.
• What tools and strategies can a company use to develop a system(s) that addresses digital wellbeing for users?
Tools and strategies can a company use to develop a system(s) that addresses digital wellbeing for users
Google announced digital wellbeing in 2018, it is new approach for OS and app development to equip users with devices for helping to get better balance between real word as well as digital devices. digital wellbeing is Google's initiative that enable users for helping to understand the usage of tech and to help for taking control over the usage of those devices. The technique includes various components like data, insights, apps, tools, content that combine to establish digital wellbeing.
Digital wellbeing is no single feature or app. It is an idea. It makes the change in lifestyle. It identifies as well as accepts the risks of mobile technologies. The new idea promotes tons of mitigation strategies for resolving those risks. It promotes the attention of devices users to monitor the unhealthy scenarios. Digital wellbeing is part of home remedy for treating the root causes.
Google initiated an idea digital wellbeing due to the encountered harsh effects of too much usage of smartphone and internet. Various health issues like depression, mental health problems are increasing due to the excessive usage of smart phones. Social media increases the time spends with the devices instead of real life. It is known as FOMO or it is feeling for person such as missing out. FOMO leads certain mental health issues like depression, anxiety and so on. The initiative of digital wellbeing has to address those issues.
Google suggest that, technology is used for improving the life. It is not center of life. One of the world's popular OS is Andriod. It is working with the direction of Digital wellbeing.
There is control is important on emotional, life and feeling to control the use of technologies. Google spread awareness on this area. They are discovering app, services for creating awareness on those areas.
Features of Android
• Efficient dashboard
Android pie has an efficient feature such as dash board. It will display the daily activities with the device. It shows the time spent with each of the applications namely YouTube, Facebook, whatsapp and so on, number of notifications arrived from each app, total amount spent with the device and so on. The details can be view for various time periods like for specific date, week or month. It will inform the habits of the user (Androidcentral 2020). The application is acting as nanny for checking the usage. The dashboards show the details of the time spent with device as well as individual application.
• Digital nanny
The application also has the feature to restrict users when the time of usages exceeds on specific time. While enabling such option, the application icon will be greyed out as well as inaccessible.
• Do not disturb mode
Another feature of Android 9 is controlling notifications. It controls notification when hit the option Do not disturb mode. Wind down mode is also important feature to automatically turn on grayscaleor blue light. The grayscale and blue light reduce the eye strain when go to sleep. Before going to sleep, the colour flection of mobile devices impact stimulation on brain. Do not disturb mode will be activated automatically while turning the mobile device down or clock reaches specific time.
Android 8.0 Oreo
Granular control notifications can be enabled on Android 8.0 Oreo. The feature allows users for disabling notification for app, disabling of notification based on category, directing notifications messages on twitter, setting priority for notification, controlling number of notification for app, optimization of notification like shade for less priority notification, sound and vibration for high priority notification (Valkenburg et al 2011).
Google's first app is based on You Tube that tap data as well as control to display on dashboard. While displaying the app usage, the dashboard indicates time spent for each video. It sends the reminder to have break after spending specific amount of time for watching videos through You Tube. User can also view delivered subscription notifications in scheduled periodic basis.
Google is trying to offer digital wellbeing application and services. Gmail already has the digital wellbeing features for organizing incoming mails into priority basis like primary, promotion, updates etc., bundled notification, and smart replies and so on. Phone albums are organized with the Google photos A-Artificial I-Intelligence (AI) driven L-library M-Management (LM). Snooze is the feature of Android for snoozing notification to view at later time.
Google's macro vision helps to balance real life and family. It gives features for parents to monitor and control their kids' devices. This feature enable parents to keep track of apps download by their kids, time spent on those apps.
Parent can control as well as control screen time of their kid devices, remote locking of devices, setting bedtime schedules, deny or approve downloads and purchases of app.
Other versions of Google applications are
√ YouTube kids which as child friendly
√ Google's Wi-Fi
√ digital edutainment
In 2018, apple announced digital wellbeing features for iOS 12 at world-wide developers conference. Like Google, apple also offered tools for users to keep track of their usage history of devices, apps as well as features for controlling the excessive usage.
Do not disturb feature
iPhone as well as iPad with iOS12 has the feature Do not Disturb for hiding notification for the specified time. It also has the feature to display the notifications little by little. With the use of Artificial intelligence the apps turn on notification based on the usage of users. It can have optimization feature for users to set different alert types based on the priority of the notification. Group based notification will be given on iOS12.
iOS offers feature called screen time that shows the total time spent by the user on that device. It also indicates alert about the time exceeding the average time. It specifies time spent on each application like Games, Entertainment, social networking and others. It includes the features like App limits for setting time limits for applications, downtime feature is to set schedule for application use etc.
Parent control over kids devices
Parent can monitor as well as control the devices of kid. They have set constraints for using applications, restrict device usage at night (Conners et al 2011).
When it will be available
Digital wellbeing is available now itself. Android Oreo has snoozing as well as notification channels. Gmail has snooze and smart replay options. Most of the smart phones are having No not Disturb feature.
Digital wellbeing is an emerging area. Google starts developing applications and services with te concept of digital wellbeing.
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• What impact will future digital tech have on human wellbeing?
Solution: Impact will future digital tech have on human wellbeing
Existing online communication technologies establish effective communication among friends, relatives, and officials. Even though it is beneficial for adults, it is risk for children. Excessive use of internet creates negative impact for children. Internet use particularly internet gaming is problematic while using in our daily life. It will make addiction for users. But no research study concludes that, excessive online gaming will pose psychiatric disorders. Internet is also playing an important role for the mental health for children through online therapeutic treatments. Internet is one of the resources for learning and offering dynamic learning content for the changing behaviour of brain. Some of the gaming whether it may online or offline that enriches visual processing, motor response skills. Some type of video games like violent or prosocial adversely affects the behaviour of the brain. Although digital technologies support children for their interactive learning still some kid of learning environment need parental guidance. The attention of the kids can be destructed due to the interruption online messaging, email and so on.
Technologies affect the physical activities of users such as sleeping activity. While using the technologies at late night it will affect the sleeping pattern. Children are using mobile phones are playing video games are continuously playing. They get disturbed on their studies.
More number of research required for evaluating the risk of using the technologies as well a benefits of health technologies.
Human well being
Major of the experts state that people are using vast amount of technologies beyond their boundaries. It will provide harmful effects for users. It will affect people's health, happiness and mental fitness.
Teenagers are using social networking. Social media networking provides an opportunity to present oneself to another. Social media communication attracts teenagers and exposes risks for them. It accessibility as well as anonymity expose teenagers for sexual solicitation or cyber bullying. It degrades the offline friendships, face -face communication. Online communications Facebook, instant messaging establishes social connectedness with the society. Existing relationship with family and friends can be maintained with the social communication. With the use of internet, new friends are created. It is one form of wellbeing (Janna Anderson et al 2018). Cyber bullying is one of the issue that being researched with the use of internet. Children are mostly incurred for cyber bullying when they internetwithout having any control of parents.
Teenagers are always connected with technologies. Internet can be used for multiple purposes. They can be used for communication, sending files, email, do to homework, submitting papers through Google Docs, talking with friends through Snapchat, spotify used for listening music, watiching movies through Netflix, scrolling with Instagram. Admission process for college and schools are done through online. Nowadays people are working from home, in which employees are connected with organizations access resources, student's are attending classes through Google class room, submitting assignments through online.
The technologies, applications, apps have made life simpler, more connected and efficient. Researchers predict that digital life impact harmful for teens for the next decade. 47% of experts do not agree the statement. They argued that digital life will be helpful for the next decade rather than harmful. Few of researchers stated that there will be no change due to digital life in the next decade
Most of the experts recommend that tech companies, user behaviour, government policies have to be changed to reduce the harmful effects of digital life.
Views of experts about the future impact of digital technologies on human wellbeing are gathered. The study is based on non -scientific. The study incudes various experts such as Professor of Stanford (Rob Reich), researchers of H-human C-Computer I-Interaction (HCI), director of center of Civic Media MIT and others. This research study is part of future of Internet studies conducted y Pew Elon University, Imagining center.
The primary question asked among the experts is how the digital life will impact people's wellbeing in future mentally or physically?
The study reveals the following. The digital technologies will affect the cognitive abilities in future. Cognitive abilities include analytical, remembering information. People in future will struggle with creative and mental resilience.
Digital technologies create addictions among users. Some of the companies that implement technology will cause dopamine released in brain.
When people is enjoying something body will release chemical such as Dopamine. The chemical motivates the person for doing the same thing again and again. While eating something interesting, the body will release the chemical to eat again and again. The technology company use the same chemical formula to addicts' users on the technology.
Digital life impact the mental health. It will increase the anxiety, stress, depression while excessive use of those technologies. It leads to les face -face communication, increase of inactivity, lack of in person communication skills, creating distrust among people.
Experts are also stated that, more and more digital technologies are increasing which will create serious threats on security and privacy. It will increase serious risks to the security of personal information. Apart from the security issue, at larger scale, it will also pose risks for national security, democracy and jobs. Artificial intelligence as well as machine learning simulates humans and its brain. The technologies will replace more number of human. It will lead to unemployment. Technologies will perform more jobs. AI will be useful in Automobile industries, healthcare industries, and educations industries and so on. Driverless car or autonomous cars will create high impact in the market. Student learns through technologies without trainer. In next decade, it is difficult to get job opportunities due to the technologies.
Various studies indicate that, excessive use of technologies will impact negatively among teens. It will create adverse effect on brains. It will lead to ADHD-hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit, problems related with behaviour and so on. Research study published in the journal of A-American M-Medical A-Association-AMA stated that, excessive use of digital technologies such as social media among teens will increase the chance of ADHD. The study stated that, increasing the use of digital technologies will increase the possibility of occurring ADHD.
Digital technologies will provide instant information for the users. Users will get required information quickly with less effort. Whatever they want they will get through the application. It reduces the patience, focus, skills, and control among users. In future they attitudes for users will be needed. Studies show that, social network affects the wellbeing of people. People may get dull and bore while excessive use of social network for comparing themselves with other. In this results in depression a well as anxiety.
The studies of UCLA brain mapping center depicts that certain areas of brain will get activated while teens watching likes. It will encourage teens to use those social media sites again and again. Researchers use fMRI scanner images to further study the brain images of teens those are using social media apps. The experimental results indicates that, while seeing the more number of likes for their photo the reward region of brain will get activated. It makes users to use those apps again and again.
The following effects will be occurring future as well as current due to the use of digital technologies. Cyber bullying, on line theft, information theft are some of the issues related with the technology. Most of the teens are affected with cyber bullying such as name calling and rumour spreading etc.
From positive perspective, technology will give greater well-being for the community rather than negative impact. Technologies will be helpful for connecting people as well as make the people to stay closer. People will have information in an easy and efficient way. People will get knowledge, education, and entertainment in flexible manner. For example chatbots is one the technology that makes communication with user as like human. Most of the applications are developed with the feature such as chatbot to provide more personalized communication for getting resources.
Another important wellbeing of the digital technology in future is for families. It will give positive impact for families. It will give opportunity for family to tap into science, health as well as security as well as safety tools and resources. Families will connect with online healthcare services. In hospitals patients records will be stored only as (E)lectronic(H)ealth (R)ecord-EHR. It will increase the patient care and quality service. Hospitals can maintain the patient data with more accuracy.
Online apps will suggest people for offering personalized healthcare services. IoT devices are now changing the way of communication. The new technology will enable the communication between devices without any human intervention. In future, IoT devices will make new era to provide personal care of patients. Wearable sensors can monitor the patient health which will send data to physician to care patients from remote location.
Elder people and impaired people can use IoT devices to take care themselves without need of some one.
Black dog institute is non-profit organization. Researcher of the institute conducted research on treatments of mental illness. The researchers stated that, digital technologies are wellbeing for treating mental illness. They suggested that, technologies are more beneficial for treating mental illness among other techniques. Teens are using machines for mental health care for managing their psychological wellbeing.
Depression is one of the serious health hazards for people. Research forecast that, in 2030 amount of depression will be increased at higher rate. Online cognitive and behavioural therapies will be useful for resolving the stress issues. The organization use digital technologies for improving the metal health of the stressed people.
Findings from literature survey
From the Literature review it is observed that, digital technologies are offering various benefits for the users. The result shows that technology will provide wellbeing for various sectors like education, medicine, industries, and families etc. Analysis also indicates that digital technologies will impact negatively on mental ability, stress, and anxiety for users. The benefits can be only addressing the issues associated with the excessive use of such technologies. Efficient techniques are required to fulfil the research gap of positive impact and negative impact of digital technologies in future. Most of the technology companies are start invoking the features for their services and application such as wellbeing to limit the excessive use of digital technologies to attain its maximum profit.
Qualitative research method will be conducted to find the impact either positive or negative of digital technologies. Qualitative research method includes various techniques such as
• one-one interview
• focus group
• case study
• record keeping
The research will conduct online survey to gather data for the research. Questionnaire will be prepared using Google forms as well as data gathered through online survey. Gathered data will be utilized for analysis as well as solution will be arrived. The research can also use focus group method to analyse their opinions about digital technologies on human being.
People are using vast amount of technologies today. Most of the communications are taking place in the form of online. Internet, video games, social networking provides entertainment and leisure. Mobile phones are placing vital role for doing communication and making connectivity with organization. Even though technologies enrich the way we are living, many crisis have occurred for technologies. Some of the researches states that, human brain is controlled by the technologies. Facebook, social media, Google are addicting people. It is difficult to categorise technologies as either good or bad. The categorization can be made based on the factors such as who use technology, when and how much time are using the technology. Wellbeing is an efficient idea for limiting the resources utilization to attain its maximum benefit.