Qualification - Pearson BTEC Level 5 Higher National Diploma in Engineering (Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
Unit Name - Utilization of Electrical Power
Unit Number - Unit 53
Assignment Title - Analysis of Electrical Power systems & create balanced energy budget
Learning Outcome 1: Examine the demands, sources and construction of electrical power generation and distribution systems.
Learning Outcome 2: Explore the interconnections of power systems and their protection to explain the critical processes and the effects of failure and the importance of electrical safety.
• Key aspects of country's energy supply, demand and losses for creating a balanced energy budget.
• Quantifying the data and forecasting the energy trends.
• Key aspects of three phase power systems using distributed generators, loads and protection.
• Power factor correction techniques and methods used to maintain good Power quality.
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Task 1.1 Energy is an vital commodity for a country's development and its economic growth.
Produce a report on quantitative analysis on the electricity production and consumption in Bahrain, by referring to the government websites given in sources of information.
In the gulf cooperation council (GCC), Bahrain is the one of the smallest oil producer among the nations. To generate the electricity bahrain has 4 gigawatts (GW) of installed generating capacity. Since the growth of population cause, there is increase in the demand of electricity in the country, and the industrial sector expansion. To overcome these issues, many of new projects are made by the Bahrain government and more money was invested which includes 1.5 GW expansion of Al Dur power plant. With these industrial based power projects also going on with high volume of electricity. In order to supply the power to Aluminum Bahrain (Alba), a new 1.8 GW power plant has been installed. In 2020, 5% of power generation has been targeted from renewable resources by Bahrain. To this end, two 5 MW solar plants are under construction in Bahrain with 25 MW waste-to-energy plant. Bahrain also exists in the part of Gulf Cooperation Council's (GCC) plan for the integration of electric power grids from the entire GCC countries. In the year of 2017, initially as the part of this project, to upgrade the Bahrain's network from 220 kilovolts (KV) to 400 KV, there are three new transmission stations are planned. 
In the year of 2015, the overall consumption of electricity is 44.6 TWh, that is, from 2000 to 2015 there is a growth of 5 percentages per year. It is experienced the peak of this growth is over about 9 percentage in that period. In the field of service sector, the demand is increase as 15.2 TWh , where as in case of the residential sector the finalized demand for consumption is , 27.2 TWh, and it is measured ase 2.2 TWh demand for electricity use for desalination. The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research estimates that the usage of air conditioner will increase the demand of electricity about 70% roughly to the annual peak load demand and about annual electricity consumption it is 45% .
Task 1.2 Being done the quantitative analysis in task1.1, discuss the key aspects that you had examined to create a country's balanced energy budget. Choose a simple electric system (kettle, coffee maker, egg boiler, room heater, electric pump etc.,) as an example to produce the energy balance budget for the same. Map the energy chain system to the country level (Bahrain) by discussing the primary energy forms, conversion mechanisms, transmission, and final energy consumption considering the losses and efficiency factors at various stages.
Nowadays the food sectors becoming a global community which is highly concerned about global food sector with high dependence on fossil fuels.  From the world's total energy consumption, the food sector alone uses about 30 percent of the electricity . Here a small analysis is made by using the coffee maker. It is well known that the coffee maker is a electric device which is used to make whenever people needs. Nowadays Coffee maker is used to everyone to make a instant coffee in order to save the time. Now we can make small calculation to calculate the energy used by the coffee maker. In general, a normal coffee maker will consume about 1200 watts of power per coffee. To make a coffee, the estimated time is about 2 minutes. Enter the wattage, hours of usage and cost per kWh. The energy usage calculator for coffee makers gives you the total energy consumed by them. Also, you can find how much power does your coffee makers consume.From the above figures it is noted that, if a person makes 1000 coffees per day with 0.1 cost per unit with 1200 watts power, then the electricity usage per day will be 40 KWhr, so that the cost per day will be 4 and for per month it will be 121.680. It can been seen that, when the person makes 1000 coffee's per day constantly , then per year the usage of cost will be 1460.160.
Task 3. Apply any of the forecasting methods to predict the future trends of the electricity load demand and supply availability for the annual data given in table.1.
MATLAB CODING FOR FORCASTING
% clear screen
%% uploading the data given in the table
a=[1 1428 2934
2 1525 2346
3 1659 3648
4 2293 3475
5 2845 3557
6 3247 3814
7 3315 3914
8 3418 4003
9 3346 3914
10 2340 3548
11 2263 3168
12 1699 3094
%% initialization of testing data for prediction
%% month initialization
%% defining training data
%% defining load target
%% defining target for supply availability
%% data fitting using neural network for load demand
net = newfit(load_demand_traindata', load_target', 20);
%% defining performance function
net.performFcn = 'mae';
%% data training with neural network for load demand
net = train(net, load_demand_traindata', load_target');
%% test data simulation for forecasting load demand
predY = sim(net, testdata')';
%% data fitting using neural network for supply
net1 = newfit(load_demand_traindata', supply_target', 20);
%% defining performance function
net1.performFcn = 'mae';
%% data training with neural network for supply
net1 = train(net1, load_demand_traindata', supply_target');
%% test data simulation for forecasting supply availability
predY1 = sim(net1, testdata')';
%% output prediction
demandout=[load_targe t; predY];
supply_out=[supply_target ; predY1];
%% plotting results for load demand
%% plotting results for supply availability
legend('Load demand' , 'Supply availability')
Task 1.4. Critically evaluate the governmental policies/actions/initiations for managing the Bahrain's energy supply demand balance with justified comments and recommendations.
The kingdom of Bahrain provides significantly lesser price for both electricity and diesel comparing with worldwide. To support the energy transition Bahrain follows its ambitious policy. In the year of 2017, National plan for energy efficiency (NEEAP) and National plan for renewable energy (NREAP) are endorsed by the Bahrain government. It is targeted that NREAP will increase the renewable energy shares by 5 percentage of 2025 and 10 percentage of 2030. Recently 100 MW solar plant project also signed by the cabinet government for the development. The energy efficiency plan of Bahrain is related with the smart meter establishment. It is aimed that in 2035 the energy consumption will be 6 percentages. By using electricity purposely without wasting, the government can able to improve the energy efficiency. In Bahrain each family using approximately 0.79 KWh electricity which helps the government to score the high equity in energy.
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Analysis of Electrical Power systems & create balanced energy budget.
It is the general procedure to use single line diagrams for representing three-phase systems. In our experiment we are using bus bar and different types of load. Bus bars are discussed below:
There are numerous electrical bus system schemes available, but the choice of one depends on the system voltage, location of the substation in the electrical power system, versatility required in the system, and the cost to be incurred.
Selection of bus bar
• Machine simplicity.
• Various types of equipment are simple to maintain.
• Reducing downtime during repairs.
• Future extension provision in response to demand growth.
Types of bus bar:
• Single bus
• Double bus
Single bus bar:
The easiest and most affordable mode of transportation is the single bus system.
Single bus scheme advantage
• Design of the bus is very simple in nature
• It is not costly
• It's easy to operate
Drawbacks of single scheme
• One major disadvantage of this type of configuration is that maintenance of any bay's equipment is impossible without disrupting the feeder or transformer connected to that bay.
• Indoor 11 KV switchboards mostly have a single bus bar configuration
• With a double bus bar system, two similar bus types of buses are used so that an outgoing feeder or ingoing taken from any of the buses that we have.
• In fact, each feeder is connected to both buses in parallel through an individual isolator.
Benefits of Double bus scheme
Double Bus Bar increase the flexibility of the system.
Drawbacks of two bus scheme
Its arrangement is designed in such a way that it does not permit maintenance of the circuit breaker till we have interrupt the system.
In our system we are using two bus bars with different types of load connected to it.
The objective of this task is to understand how to calculate line losses of transmission lines, efficiency. we have generating station then we have bus bar from which our feeders are going and different loads connected to it in a parallel. we have to find losses and power factor compensation. mat lab simulation is done to find losses and capacitor value that improve power factor.
The Area-2 load is supplied from 11kV, 50Hz bus by L km long three phase transmission line having resistance of 0.12Ω/phase/km and reactance of 0.36Ω/phase/km respectively from power generating station bus (area-1). The sector wise power demand at 11kV bus of area-2 is given in table.2 as separate data set against each trainee's Identity number.
Task 2.1. Calculate the transmission line losses and efficiency for the modified three phase power system placing the designed capacitor to improve power factor and compare the results with task2.1. There by list the advantages of power factor improvement.
Calculations: At unity power factor there are no losses efficiency will be 100%
List the advantages of power factor improvement:
• Improved system and device reliability.
• There is a low voltage drop.
• The Cooper's expense is reduced by reducing the size of the conductor and cable.
• I2R reduces line losses (copper losses).
• electricity availability amount increases
Task 2.2 If the club house at area-2 is required to be powered from a distribution generation station, explore the key aspects of the three phase system shown in figure.1 using distributed energy generation, nature of loads and the different protection schemes adopted.
The power factor become more less, and possible drawbacks are:
• Components require higher current due to which cost jump.
• When p.f of the system are high it means that copper losses high so overall efficiency becomes low.
Task 2.3 List the possible power quality issues that could be encountered in the power system shown in figure.1. Critically evaluate at least two technologies used to improve power quality and illustrate the advantages of application of such methods through Matlab simulations or otherwise (high technical English language).
Lowering of voltages
.Nominal voltage is the designated voltage provided by the electric utility or the voltage provided
Fluctuations in voltage
A transient is one of the most dangerous voltage disturbances (or spike).
The voltage on the electrical system is higher than the expected voltage.
Voltage and current sign waves are distorted by harmonics. Harmonic distortion occurs when equipment in an industrial facility changes sign wave activity between AC and DC.
Increasing quality power:
• As we know that the lowering in factor power necessitates producing reactive energy Q as close as possible to the loads that are connected. The simplest and most popular method of achieving this aim is to install capacitors on the network, such as Schneider Electric's VarSet LV capacitor banks.
• When it comes to shielding a power system from transients, transient voltage surge suppressors are the best choice.