Qualification - Pearson BTEC Level 5 Higher National Diploma in Engineering
Unit Name - Industrial Power, Electronics and Storage
Unit Number - Unit 44
Unit Level - Level 5
Assignment Title - Energy demand, technologies and methods of production, efficiency improving measures, technologies and policies.
Learning Outcome 1: Evaluate the energy demand to determine the technology and methods of energy production
Learning Outcome 2: Explore current energy efficiency measures, technologies and policies specific to the building and transportation sectors
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EWA and SEU are the Governing bodies to look after energy matters in Kingdom of Bahrain. Being appointed as probationary renewable engineer in SEU, senior engineer assigned you the task described below before actual implementation on site.
Prepare a brief critical evaluation report- of solar PV panel system over current energy sources and other renewable technologies used in energy efficiency improvement for meeting short term and long-term demand by referring to any legitimate sources data and showing charts, also considering their global impact on environment and demand, cost, benefits, effectiveness, and drawbacks of the given distribution system.
Evaluation report of solar PV panel system over current energy sources and other renewable technologies used in energy efficiency improvement
The energy demand is evaluated to determine the technology and methods of energy production. The performance of a renewable energy and the technologies used in energy efficiency improvement have been evaluated in a critical manner. The dynamic performance of a power electronic converter has been analysed for a given renewable energy source. The energy and cost savings against conventional power sources are calculated including the consideration for development and installation costs. The current energy efficiency measures, technologies and policies specific to the building and transportation sectors have been explored.
The PV system has been designed using the Matlab Simulink software. The PV system consists of the 2 inputs - Vpv and Insolation and 2 outputs - Ipv and Ppv.
The Figure 4 represents the plot of voltage, current and power with respect to time obtained using the scope.
Meeting short term and long-term demand
Here, the solar PV panel system is evaluated in a critical manner over the current energy sources and the other renewable technologies which are used for energy efficiency improvement to meet the short term and long term demand.
Global impact on environment and demand, cost, benefits, effectiveness, and drawbacks of the given distribution system.
The legitimate sources of data and charts have been considered. The global impact on environment and demand, cost, benefits, effectiveness, and drawbacks of the given distribution system are studied.
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Determine the factors that impact on the energy use and efficiency in a building, discuss measures taken to improve efficiency, technologies and Evaluate selection of technologies that could be used to improve energy efficiency in a Bahrain home or technologies chosen in an electric vehicle namely Tesla Model 3 to promote sustainability.
Factors that impact on the energy use and efficiency in a building, discuss measures taken to improve efficiency, technologies
The factors affecting the energy use and efficiency in a building are studied and the measures taken to improve efficiency and technologies are discussed. The selection of technologies which can be used to improve energy efficiency in a Bahrain home or technologies in an electric vehicle namely Tesla Model 3 to promote sustainability is done.
The electrical energy consumption of the utility grid distribution system is modelled here and compared to a PV system using Matlab/Simulink software. The dynamic performance of dc-dc converter used with PV system at various irradiance level is analysed and the energy, cost savings of PV system, considering development and installation cost against utility grid is calculated.
The PV voltage, power extracted from PV array and other outputs at steady state t=0.25 sec are found and plotted using MATLAB software. The string of PV array has beenchosen for 3000W.The initial input irradiance to the PV array model is taken as 250 W/m2 and the operating temperature is 25 degree Celsius.
There are several sources of energy available. They can be divided into - renewable and non - renewable sources of energy. The renewable sources of energy are the ones which do not get depleted over a period of time and can be renewed by nature. There are several renewable sources of energy. These include - solar energy, hydro energy, wind energy, geothermal energy etc. The solar energy is gaining popularity these days. The short time demand as well as the long time demand needs to be assessed before a system is designed. The demand needs to be assessed for the years 2021 to 2025 and 2050 / 2040.
Technologies that could be used to improve energy efficiency in a Bahrain hom
The pie chart shown in Figure 5 represents the part of the energy generated for Bahrain by solar( 40 % ), wind ( 20 % ), biofuel ( 20 % ), hydro power ( 5 % ) and geothermal energy ( 15 % ).
The pie chart shown in Figure 6 represents the part of the energy generated for the world by solar, wind, other ( 11 % ), coal ( 27 % ), oil ( 33 % ), hydro power ( 2 % ), gas ( 21 % ) and nuclear energy ( 6 % ).
There are several benefits of using a renewable source of energy such as the solar energy. There is no problem of depletion of resource as the renewable source of energy is available in plenty. It does not cause any pollution as compared to the other sources like coal, oil etc. It is available free of cost. The overall cost involves the installation charges. The use of solar energy is effective in areas which have plenty of sunlight. It is not effective on the days when sunlight is low or negligible like rainy days. Hence, the effectiveness of solar energy depends upon the presence of sunlight. The cost of installation of the system is very high. When the solar energy is used, then there is no emission of greenhouse gases as compared to coal etc. This helps to protect the environment from the harmful effects of greenhouse gases such as global warming and climate change.
The use of wind energy is effective in areas which have good speed of wind. It is not effective on the days when wind speed is low or negligible. Hence, the effectiveness of wind energy depends upon the presence of wind. The cost of installation of the system is very high. But wind energy is clean and pollution free source of energy.
The use of hydro energy is effective only when the water is made to move at high speed. This requires the creation of dams which disturbs the natural course of a river. This leads to environmental damage. The cost of installation of the system is very high. But hydro energy is clean and pollution free source of energy.
The energy resources are used worldwide for a variety of applications which include - manufacturing, transportation, lighting, heating, cooling, device operation etc. The various applications are very basic necessities of daily life. This has led to a drastic increase in the demand of energy worldwide. The population will grow by the year 2050 and the energy demand will rise again. The fossil fuels are getting depleted at an alarming rate. In such a situation, the renewable energy sources are found to be effective. However, there are certain drawbacks of using the renewable energy sources. These are -there is a need to develop technology, the cost of installation is high, there many be fluctuations in the natural resource availability and the integration process in the grid is a very complex process.
If the power output of a PV panel is seen, it can be observed that the power output obtained is very low. This is because a very small amount of current is generated by a large amount of irradiance. The system can be improved by amplifying the current value obtained at the output so that the power levels can be increased. The efficiency can be improved in this manner as the output current levels increase. The solar cell material can be altered to provide good output.
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Analysis of the dynamic performance of dc-dc converter used with PV system at various irradiance level and calculate energy, cost savings of PV system, considering development and installation cost against utility grid.
The Figure 7 represents the block diagram of a solar system. It includes the solar panel, DC/DC converter, MPPT control block, storage device, voltage measurement and current measurement. The solar panel consists of an array of solar cells which helps to generate current using the solar energy which falls on the panel. The output of the solar panel is provided to the DC / DC converter. The MPPT control block obtains the voltage and current values and its output is provided to the DC/DC converter. The storage device is used to store the energy output for further use. As the complete solar system consists of various blocks, there are energy losses at various stages of the system. These include - panel, DC/DC converter, battery etc.
With the increase in urban infrastructure one faces many issues regarding the level of energy consumption in a modern high rise building. The increase in energy consumption has bought about changes in local climate and density of township there by affecting solar radiation and temperature. How intense these factors are largely depends upon the location of such buildings, orientation, and architecture of the same. The alarming factor is the cost of such energy used and it has become even more vital to reduce the consumption of the same. It should be noted that the cost of energy used by civil buildings are greater than what is beard by industrial sectors. As a lot of time is spent in a building there is a whole lot usage of energy also. Some factors impacting the same can be:
• The main purpose for which the building is used? The amount of energy used will depend whether it is a classroom, an office or may be a laboratory.
• The time when the building was constructed. An old building will have old techniques which consumes more power than a modern constructed building which will be more energy efficient.
• The nature of construction of the building will also impact on the amount of energy consumed.
• If there is regular maintenance and upgrades in the building and the related equipments it will affect the use of energy.
• The external climate and temperature around will also affect, in a very hot climate more air conditioners will work and in a very cold climate heaters will be used.
• The extent to which the building is occupied by people. A populate building will consume greater energy than a vacant one.
• The type of insulation technique used by the building.
In a given building, there are several factors that influence the energy requirement for a building. These are - heating, cooling, lighting requirements, envelope building, double window etc. The battery technology also needs to be taken into consideration. It includes - lithium battery, acid battery etc. The performance of the solar panel can change depending upon the time of the day and is dynamic in nature. For example - In the morning, the power is 400 Watt per square meter and in the evening, it is 50 Watt per square meter.
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Refer to scenario, Model the electrical energy consumption of the utility grid distribution system comparing with a PV system using Matlab/Simulink or equivalent software. Analyse the dynamic performance of dc-dc converter used with PV system at various irradiance level and calculate energy, cost savings of PV system, considering development and installation cost against utility grid.
Electrical energy consumption of the utility grid distribution system comparing with a PV system using Matlab/Simulink or equivalent software
The simulation has been done using the Matlab Simulink software. The policies need to be developed for the building as well as the transportation sector so that efficient use of energy is made.
The possibility to install PV panel and electrify 3 houses/an electric vehicle instead of existing utility grid which consume approx. 3kW load has been studied. The existing utility grid supply is singlephase AC power network via a transformer mounted on a post which lowers the voltage 11kV to 240 V. The initial input irradiance to the PV array model is 250 W/m2 and the operating temperature is 25 deg. C. The string of PV array is chosen for 3000W.
Technologies chosen in an electric vehicle namely Tesla Model 3 to promote sustainability
The transport sector accounts for more than 24% emission of carbon dioxide worldwide. It is vital to promote sustainable transport to reduce the effect of green house gases which actually is the reason behind worldwide climate change there by safe guarding our environment. This will also help to distribute energy more evenly to protect the planet and deliver sustainable efficient energy for others as well. The excessive cost of energy and excess use of fossil fuels by vehicles have been linked with issues regarding high dependency on oil and global warming. Two approaches to face this issues are :
• Enhance a better plan for the optimum use of land there by regulating the need of transport automatically.
• Modern transport facilities which are more sustainable to use and also provide enhanced mobility service to the population.
The new technologies concern modern modes of public transport like buses with extended capacity which can be similar to light rail but most important is to curtail the cost of the same and being more flexible to adopt. Secondly, cyber cars and PRT which means personal rapid transport which are small modern means of transport with automated drivers and which can also be used in sharing modes which will again help the public transport use. We can also improve the technologies and safety precautions adopted by private cars by introducing intelligent speed adaptation, lane keeping, adaptive cruise control and many such features. Introducing the use of bio fuel which comes from biomass of vegetables and unlike traditional fuels which are obtained from fossils.