Qualification - Higher National Diploma in Engineering

Unit Name - Industrial Power, Electronics and Storage

Unit Number - Unit 44

Assignment Title - Industrial Power, Electronics and Storage

Learning Outcome 1: Evaluate the energy demand to determine the technology and methods of energy production

Learning Outcome 2: Explore current energy efficiency measures, technologies and policies specific to the building and transportation sectors

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Task 1:

i) Investigate the energy sources currently used in Trinidad and Tobago. Your investigation should provide current data on consumer ( residential and commercial) energy demands from the Electrical Utility. Your investigation should also provide information on the environmental impact/s that our current energy sources have on our country.

Solution:

Energy Sources presently used in Trinidad and Tobago

The energy sources of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) are obtained mainly from the natural gas. They are the largest oil and gas produces in the region of Caribbean. This fuel is burnt to produce steam and then utilized to operate steam turbine and the coupled generator will generate electricity. The production of entire natural gas is utilized domestically. Around 70% is channeled towards ammonia, methanol and plants of urea, steel mills and utility sector of electricity. The T&T commission of electricity has carried out the electrification all over the island and the production of power as commercial, domestic and industrial usage are in ahead in most of the areas. (Encyclopedia, 2021)
The total installed capacity of the country is 2,114 MW
Renewable energy Installed 0 %
Peak Demand in the country is 1,319 MW as per 2018. Total Generation is 9,324 GWh (2018).
Energy accessing is by 100 % of the population

The above figure shows the energy production of T&T. 99.5% is from Natural gas and only 0.5% is from Diesel. Only negligible amount of 0.0044 MW in Renewable energy is utilized. The target of renewable energy production is 10 %.

The consumption of energy by sector wise is given as 29% for residential, 11 % for commercial and 69% for industrial purposes. (Initiative, 2021). Per unit GDP of energy in T&T is about 10 kWh. The demand of the country is 5,975kWh otherwise known as per capita energy consumption. Energy usage per person is 142.119 kWh.(Roser, 2020)
The impact of energy sources in T&T is defined as; this is giving less priority to the development as well as usage of renewable sources of energy, hence it has become the higher place in the global ranking in the aspect of GHG - Green House Gas Emission. This is due to huge volume of vehicles, rising of packed roads; though the sector transport has it contribution to GHG is only 6%. Almost 80% GHG else 53m tonnes per annum is from the power plants and production of petrochemical.
• Damage towards infrastructure of the country due to rise in frequency as well as intensity of hurricanes.
• Thermal stressing on sensitive ecosystems due to rise in temperature of sea surface
• Erosion process at coastlines as well as rise in soil salination due to rise in sea levels
• Reduction in percolation and recharging of reserves in groundwater is happening by precipitation reduction.

ii) Following your investigation above, assess the global impact on energy demands from energy sources that is used by the electrical utilities from the following countries"

a) England
b) China
c) USA

Solution: Global impact on energy demands from energy sources
a) England- It is obtaining its energy sources from Gas, Nuclear, Hydro, Wind and Solar, Oil and other fuels (pumped storage), few other renewables. Total generated electricity is 324.8 TWh (2019). Most of the energy generation is from Natural gas which leads to emission of GHG (BEIS, 2021)
b) China - The Electricity consumption in China is about 7,510 TWh by the year 2020. It uses almost all the sources of energy. Most of the sources of energy is from Thermal Power which is obtained from coal which is the dominant source of China. Now the use of renewable energy source is increased by many folds with hydro and wind power.(Wong, 2021)
c) USA - As per US energy information administration EIA, most of the energy production of electrical utility is from natural gas, coal and nuclear energy. Few renewable sources are also utilized such as hydro, geothermal, Solar, Wind and bio- mass. (center, 2020)
Overall impact from these three countries on global impact is defined such that, the energy consumption structure and the conditions of GHG emissions are higher due to the production of electrical utility energy at England , China and USA affects the global changes like acid rain and effect of green hose. Since this three countries are utilizing the per capital energy consumption is higher and the major production is form natural gas and thermal power which leads to pollution by GHG and the CO2 emission from transport also impact highly by these countries. The natural gas, coal and oil are influencing more on pollution of air, water, harm to public health, global warming, wildlife harm, loss of habitat etc. Similarly there is robust relationship betwixt the energy demand and the economic development. This will affect the global financial and economic status also. Hence great care has to be taken to reduce the greenhouse effect from electrical utilities is optimized by the use of renewable energy sources and energy security with energy policies in association with energy demand. (Bilgen, 2014)

Task 2:
i) Examine the benefits and effectiveness of at least TWO renewable energy sources which can be adopted in Trinidad and Tobago and include your findings in the report. All claims made should be supported by researched evidentiary data. This data can be obtained, by examining the implementation of similar renewable energy sources, in other Caribbean countries that may be similar to ours.

Solution:
i)Benefits and effectiveness of two renewable energy sources
The two renewable energy sources that could be adopted in Trinidad and Tobago are Solar and Wind. The tropical climatic condition of Caribbean promotes enormous supply of renewable energy sources such as Solar, Wind and Tidal. Here we have taken two sources Solar and Wind.

The projects of energy in T& T are limited to small level. Two numbers of 2-kW off-grid photo-voltaic - PV systems are in function at the University of T& T as well as compound of T&TEC's Mt. Hope. In due course, 1 kW systems of PV are been installed throughout the country's school. The country's first renewable energy systems - RES was combined with 2.5 kW-PV and the wind system at South of Trinidad‘s Islamic children home which was interconnected on the year 2012. The above projects exhibits the technical realistic of RES and the primary components are supporting to make awareness and the Renewable energy benefits. MEEA was undertaken the assessment to identify the possible sites for the projects of wind power. They identified 5 sites for wind power projects. (ETI, 2015)

These projects are developed to attain clean energy aims or targets. The benefits of REs are, it generates no GHG emissions as well decreases the air pollution; it diversifies the supply of energy and decreases the use of natural gas as fuel for energy supply; Solar heating facility for hot water as well as pilot scale drying usages. It promotes employability and economic as well social benefits to the country.

Because of low cost grid power in T&T Solar powered usages are considered as cost effective when initiated as offline application in small level. Solar can be utilized direct as well as indirect in terms of heating, producing electricity, Industrial processing, commercial laundries, and hotels and so on. Wind source is also used to produce electricity and available in the range of 10 kW to more than 2 MW. It is utilized for the applications of homes, water pumping, and telecom sites. Ice making, (remote applications) and power supply to village and distributed power for hybrid and central stations.

Utilization of solar energy by replacing the traditional water heaters with version of solar power would give the outcome of significant decrease in power supply. By using this around approximately $10 million of annual electricity bill - (depends on electricity bill rate / kWh) would be saved by the customers and reduces the yearly GHG emissions from natural gas combustion as approximate 40 tonnes. (C. Sharma, 2011). Similarly wind power usages also reduce the GHG emissions and decrease the electricity bill when utilized for large scale applications. The energy efficiency also increases.

ii) Explore the following current renewable energy technologies and their associated cost for residential OR commercial use Cost factors to look at include the cost of equipment and hardware, labour /installation cost, maintenance cost.

a) Wind Power Systems
b) Photovoltaics Energy Systems
c) Hydro Power Energy Systems
During your exploration you should indicate the fundamental differences between each system and the current technologies being used today

Solution: Renewable energy technologies and cost related with residential use or commercial use

a) Wind Power Systems
This is defined as, obtaining the electrical energy by the conversion of wind energy into rotational energy of blades and then conversion of rotating energy to electrical energy by generator. It increases with cube rate of wind speed and hence WTGs must be installed in large area of wind speed. It produces no emission of Co2 and not necessary to concern about its depletion, it needs simple equipment and easier operation. The current technology in this wind power system is building offshore WTGs and it is available in the range of one WTG to wind farm contains many WTGs. (Wind-Turbine Generator)

Descriptions

Commercial  wind  power systems - Approximate cost in S

Residential wind  power systems - Approximate cost in S

Operation and maintenance cost - Insurance , rent, service and spare parts, administrative tasks,  Power and miscellaneous

$ 42,000 to $ 48,000 per year for 2-3 MW power

$ 5000 for 1 kW power

Hardware cost -  blades, tower , turbine, generator

$ 800,000

$ 7,000

Installation and labor

$20,000

$ 2,000

Total (Energy, 2021)

8,68,000

14,000

b) Photovoltaic Energy Systems
(Ran Fu, 2019)
Solar Photovoltaic is generally known as solar PV systems. It converts directly the sunlight into electricity. It differs from solar thermal collector as solar water heater. Solar PV system could decrease the carbon emissions and the charge - bill rate of electricity by generating the sustainable energy from Sun rather than by burning of fossil fuels. These PV systems can be utilized for residential, commercial and industrial electricity applications depends on their requirements. Current technology being used in this solar PV system is Utility grid and off grid.

Descriptions

Residential PV- 6.2 kW

Commercial PV - 200 kW

Approximate amount in dollars

Approximate amount in dollars

Soft costs  - others - PII, Land acquisition, Sales Tax, Overhead, and Net Profit

25,900

18,400

Soft costs - Installation / Labor

8,600

6,100

Hardware - structural and electrical components

16,300

15,400

Inverter

12,400

10,200

Module

6,750

4,000

Total

69,950

54,100

c) Hydro Power Systems

In this hydro power systems, the water is flows via pipe, penstock, and then pushes in oppose to turn the blades in a turbine to rotate a generator to generate electricity. It means, it generates the power byusing water energy which falls from higher potential to lower potential. Hydro power systems are emitting very negligible amount of Co2which is the main cause for environmental pollution as well as global warming. Use of hydro power systems eliminates this pollution. This is eco-friendly power systems. Current technology used with this power system is Pumped storage and Micro- hydel power systems (Toshiba, 2021)

Description

Small Hydro for  1 kW

Large Hydro

Installation costs

$ 1300 to $ 8,000

$ 1,050 to $ 7,650

Operation and Maintenance costs

$ 130 to  $ 400

$ 262  to  $ 1925

Hardware costs , turbine, generator, penstock , pipes,

 $ 20,000 to $ 35,000

 $ 25,000 to $ 42, 000

Total

$ 43,400

$ 51,575

By viewing the cost of three systems of renewable energies, Solar system is cheap compared with other systems of energies. Next to Solar, hydro is expensive and Wind power system is very expensive. Though all are having cost factors such as initial cost is high and the maintenance cost will be reduced year by year. No fuel cot is required for all the systems. The fundamental difference is solar uses light and heat energy from the sun, Hydro uses water energy and wind power uses wind energy; all are natural sources of energy and produces zero emission of co2.

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iii) The Ministry of Energy is looking at the implementation of two following Renewable energy systems in specific areas of Trinidad as a pilot project
a) Residential Grid Connected Photovoltaic (Solar) Systems - Chaguanas
b) Wind Power Systems (Grid Connected )-Mayaro district

Should each system be implemented, evaluate the effectiveness and drawbacks of these two renewable energy systems as it relates to our short term and long-term energy demands needs for those areas.

Solution: Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems

a) Residential Grid connected Photovoltaic - Solar systems - Chaguanas
The pilot project of the above said project can be implemented. This place is well served with more than 99 % of people could access drinking water facility and electricity facility. Education facility is also good. The figure below shows the residential grid connected PV system which is to be implemented in the area of Chaguanas at Trinidad. It is connected always with the public electric grid through applicable inverter due to the fact that, the PV panel delivers only DC power. The extra components which make the grid connection of PV are Inverter, meter, AC breaker panel as well as fuses, safety switches, cabling and grid.

Drawbacks
Initial cost is high than traditional methods and the permissions and amendments are needed and RIC acts for pilot scae geenration and for the installation of grid connected systems are expensive, complicated as well as tme consuming processs.

Effectiveness
Almost any kind of solar plant can be installed here in the rang eabove 10 MW. This can be supplied where the place over caapacity is existing. Energy storage system has to be introduced that could address the volrage fluctuations as well as frequency variation. For short term energy demand and long term energy demand it is useful. It reduces the GHG emission and create pollution free environement. They can use the additional power on grid for water desaliantion else for th generation of green hydrogen . Additional jobs are created in this area which intrun increases the economical feasiblity.

Residential grid connected PV system
Hence residential grid connected PV system supports industrial and residential when connected via grid.

b) Wind Power systems - grid connected - Mayaro district
The area Mayaro is semi-urban country. This is located at end of Manzanilla Beach. Hence it is right place for the implementation of wind power systems (Grid connected). The resources are sufficient for wind energy generation. The available average wind speed is about 12.14 mph. or 5.43 m/s. The diagram below shows the grid connected wind energy system at Mayaro. It produces chances to extend the energy sources and changes the economy of the country prior to the global trends severely impacts the existing economy. By providing kind of alternate source in this area will insulate residents from outage experience.

Drawbacks
In case the control as well as regulation is lost, then frequency of the system could not be controlled, grid connection needs fixed generation of frequency. Energy managing equipment like inverter is expensive and not easy to integrate with local grid.(Alvarez, 2014) People are having inadequate knowledge regarding potential of renewable sources in the country, cost, benefits and operations of these projects.

Grid connected Wind power systems

Effectiveness
It produces no GHG emissions and no water is necessary for the operations hence no water pollution and it creates extra job in the area which it is established. Initial cost may be higher but later it will be reduced and it will attain short term aim of meeting power demand for households and excess power can be tied to grid for other purposes. This resolves the power outages and irregularity of the electricity issues of residents in the district of Mayaro. (Mickhal Polisher, 2020)

iv) In concluding your report, select one of the renewable energy systems given in part

iii) above, and carry out a critical evaluation relating to the performance of the system and the technologies, and show how that we can implement energy efficiency improvements by adopting RE. Additional criteria which should be considered during your critical evaluation of performance includes but are not limited to;
- Cost factors in utility energy cost vs systems cost
- Possible energy savings from a local/residential and commercial perspective (use data from part i.)
- Transportation
- Electrical Load type/ use.

iv) For critical evaluation I would like to take the Wind energy system with grid connected. The area near Manzanilla which includes the district of Mayaro is facing huge number of power outages. This system is provided to resolve the issues of power outages in the district. Since it is located near coastal sides, wind patterns are feasible for the generation of electricity through wind. Since this is pilot scale project, and targets to spread over nearby districts if the pattern is suitable. Initial investment is so high and the performance rate is consistent and people are now ready to adopt RE through various training programs and education.
Cost factors- Wind turbine accommodates 50 % of cost on implementation. HAWT with the height of about 80 m can be installed. The cost includes turbines, structures, installation, Grid connection, management, development and miscellaneous costs will be around $ 325,000. Cost is higher for this smaller area projects while considering the impact of GHG it is essential to invest in wind energy
Energy savings - The real power demand is 9.6 MWh in the area. While using this, energy saving is achieved of about 20 to 30 % according to tariff.
Transportation - The road infrastructure is of low quality and very narrow and difficult to manage heavy vehicles in the road. Heliport at Galeota is utilized for energy sector implementation, hence transportation cost is high.
Electrical Load type - The load type are agricultural services, Manufacturing, many MSMEs along with residential loads.

Section 2: Compile and submit a report based on following Tasks

Task 3
i) Discuss waht current Energy Efficiency measures that is adopted in Trinidad and Tobago by both the private and commercial sector with respect to energy used in buildings by consulting with companies or organization involved, and report your findings

Solution:

i) Energy efficiency measures in Trinidad and Tobago
This is refers to quantity of output that can be produced with given energy of input. The energy efficiency is measured in terms of energy management, consumption, budget commitments, regarding electricity, overall consumption per capita. The program BIEE- Base de indicadores de efficienca Energetica is used as tool for monitoring energy efficiency in the sector. Long term PPA - power purchase agreements are combined with lower prices of gases and its unique generation of electricity, transmission, distribution structure, energy efficiency would upgrade to current pp. The industries shares 80 % of total and 23% primary consumption(Indar, 2020)This programmme permits quantitative methods towards monitor and treating the EE from aggregate as well sector which supports to develop EE policies. With the support of SDG, it is ensuring the access of reliable, sustainable, latest energy to all. MEEI is serving guiding tools to reduce the emissions and increase the EE. Macro, energy, power, industry, house hold, transport and agriculture are involved in this EE. the country must focus on energy-efficient and low carbon technology in the buildings.

ii) Following up from the discussions in part 1 above, determine what are the MAIN factors that impact on energy use and on the efficiency use in a commercial buildings, you can use examples of commercial banks, hotels etc.

Solution:

ii) Main factors that impact on energy use on efficiency in commercial buildings in commercial banks and hotels
• Maintenance of HVAC - Preventive and regular maintenance is required
• Insulation - 10 % of energy bill is saved by appropriate insulation
• Educate the employees - Educating the employees about the importance of energy usage efficiently
• Usage of smart building - Smart building controls the forgetfulness of human being in failing to switch off the gadgets
• Changing the HVAC system - 35% energy saving can be obtained from retrofit
• Building roofs and windows - Replace it with new one if found damaged will save energy
• Usage of LED Lights - It will save lots of energy and consumes less power
• Using energy efficient appliances
• Frequently do energy audit. (Mechanical, 2019)

iii) Discuss with members of the Board,via a oral presentation the technologies that could be used in Trinidad and Tobago to support more sustainable transport . The presentation should not exceed 10 minutes and you may be required to answer questions to clarify understanding on topics of your presentation. (You will be required to condcut this oral presentation via online with assessor on agreed date and time to be given),

iii) Oral presentation - sustainable transport in Trinidad and Tobago

iv) An BMS energy management system of a Electric Vehicle is to be performed using Matlab and simulink, Complete the following steps:
a) Go to the online video Matlb/ Simuling video of a home energy management system, and look at it

b) Look at the simulation of the model and comment on the results provided. This will be conducted via a online video meet where you will be asked to show and explain this model and answer any questions asked. You are also reuired t downlaod the Mathlab software and simulinj and explain how you can use to create the model and perform the simulation

iv) a) Home energy management systems
Discussion will be in class
b)On-line video meet

v) Perform an Evaluation on a selection of two (2) suitable technologies that is used to improve the energy efficiency of EV on the market from the list provided below. Your findings should be in a report format

1) Electric Motors Types and Selection
2) Batteries Types and Selection
3) Vehicle Transmission
4) Power flow Control ( Software and hardware)

v) Technologies used to improve energy efficiency
For improving energy efficiency of electric vehicles energy saving and optimal control technology is utilized. This includes high efficiency motors, battery management system, vehicle management system, etc. In order to reduce the emissions of Co2 and to attain good fuel savings Electric vehicles are introduced. Fuel cell hybrid vehicle or HEV are offering adequate power while in acceleration.

i) Electric Motors Types and selection -The optimization is done by means of reducing the overall weight, volume, and cost. In addition to three phase AC motors, SRM - switched reluctance motor is drawing its attention because of its low cost, structure, good control, high efficiency and wider operation range.

ii) Batteries Type and selection- The challenges in the battery are SOC, temperature are influencing the energy recovery. If the SOC is high, regenerative braking might not fed back to battery. Lithium - ion battery is utilized for HEVs due to its high power, energy density, long durability and no effect on memory. BMS is used to raise the safety of battery. BMS monitors the voltage, current, temperature and detecting the leakage etc.(uoqing Xu, 2015)

iii) Vehicle Transmission- Hybrid braking system with hydraulic and regenerative braking is employed to achieve safety, energy efficient and brake comfort. V2G, the grid EVs are linked directly to utility for the function of energy storage in distributed nature while in parking period.

iv) Power flow control - software and hardware- This is achieved by Fuzzy logic based, strong control supported and neural network - supported approaches are used to obtain the energy efficiency in EV.

vi) The implementation of a Utility Scale PV Grid Tie Systems would require an critical evaluation of the power electronic converters to be used and how they work, what advantages or disadvantages PE used in converter they have and a more importantly why they are used in Renewable Energy Systems, do this by:

a) Select via research a suitable DC -DC converter that is used in a PV Grid Tie system, note and stating its electrical specifications.

For the selected converter in part a) analysis its performance by showing how it can improve the efficiency and performance of a PV system and improve on its output power /energy generation

b) What kind of energy and cost savings can be made utilizing this RE technology in power generation from the utility scale system compared to Electrical Utility generation cost in meeting peak load demands from consumers

Solution: a) DC-DC converter used in PV grid Tie system

The DC-DC converter used in PV grid system is adopting the MPPT algorithm to obtain maximum efficiency.

Cascaded PV architecture with DC-DC converter

It uses DC-DC lift up converter as boost converter with voltage gain is high. Duty ratio of MOSFET switches 0.35. The input is given as 25 V for simulation purpose. Output is 263 V. The coupled inductor is turns ratio 1.9 and gains 10.5 MOSFET voltage stress 57 v, stress on diode is 35 v and 18 v respectively at the input side. The algorithm MPPT is made with PV array and the grid system controls the power flow betwixt the power quality enhancement that uses single inverter hence it is cost-effective as well it operates in grid connected as well as standalone mode. This converter obtains higher step-up voltage with low loss. MPPT technique optimizes the power as well as grid associated systems.

b) Energy and cost savings in utilizing RE technology
Renewable energy could supply two-third of entire global demand of energy and contributing to reduction of GHG emissions. During peak demand the consumption is more, hence as peak load station if we use RE energy in addition with base load the cost of fuel is very much saved for about 40 %. The costs of grid, balancing and connection are reduced. The true capacity is given as 0.43 for wind and 0.17 for solar PV which permits intermittency(Nuclear, 2021). Harnessing these technology relies on cost as well as efficiency hence decreasing cost per peak kW and kWh source.

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Learning Outcome

Assessment Criteria

LO1 Evaluate the energy demand to determine the technology and methods of energy production

P1 Investigate current energy sources, demand and their impact on the environment
P2 Examine the benefits and effectiveness of renewable energy sources
P3 Explore renewable energy technologies and their costs

M1 Determine the use of energy sources to assess their global impact on energy demand
M2 Evaluate the effectiveness and drawbacks of renewable energy systems for short and long term energy demands

D1 Critically evaluate the performance of a renewable energy system and the technologies used in energy efficiency improvement

LO2 LO2 Explore current energy efficiency measures, technologies and policies specific to the building and transportation sectors

P4 Discuss current energy efficiency measures
P5 Determine the main factors that impact on energy use and efficiency in a building
P6 Discuss the technologies that could be used to support more sustainable transport

M3 Apply modelling of energy management in a building or electric vehicle using Matlab/Simulink (or equivalent)
M4 Evaluate the selection of suitable technologies to improve energy efficiency in a building or electric vehicle

D2 Analyse the dynamic performance of a
power electronic converter for a given renewable energy source and calculate the energy and cost savings against conventional power sources, including consideration for development and installation costs

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