Course - Higher National Diploma in Construction and The Built Environment

Executive Summary:Here in this report, we have focused majorly on different types of earthwork activities. One project of stayed cable bridge has been selected as a case study and different types of earthwork solutions has been proposed for the specific project. Different types of earthwork equipment and techniques are also discussed in detail in this report.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary
1. Task 1: Part I
1.1. Discuss earthworks activities, equipment, and techniques
1.2. Methods and techniques used to create complex foundation-related works
1.3. Methods and techniques used in culvert construction
1.4. Methods and techniques used to deal with slope stability
2. Task 2: Part I
2.1. Identify the hazards and risks associated with earthwork activities
2.2. Site safety plan, risk assessment, and methods statements
2.3. Health and safety legislation and codes of practice in civil engineering
2.4. case study of cable-stayed bridge
3.Task 1: Part II
3.1. Environmental, quality, geotechnical and economic contexts
3.2. sustainable solution of the problem statement
4. Task 2: Part II
4.1. Bridge construction methods and techniques
4.2. Civil engineering design proposal for stayed cable bridge

Assignment - Civil Engineering Technology

Learning Outcome 1: Explain the common methods and techniques used in civil engineering earthworks and substructures

Question 1.1 Discuss earthworks activities, equipment's and techniques:

Solution: Here different types of earthworks activities have been discussed as below:

Earthwork activities:
a) Site formation:

To prepare the site perfectly from the barren land several activities need to be carried out as, land reclamation work, soil stabilization, demolition and wrecking of buildings, etc.

b) Site clearance:
To carry out different activities like stripping and felling the tree, first, we need to clear the site area including the removal of fencing, offices, weighbridge, parking areas, water treatment areas, etc.

c) Felling tree:
Felling tree is the process of cutting down whole trees. The person who is associated with the process of felling is known as a feller. There is a machine also used for the felling tree process which is known as a ‘feller buncher'.

d) Stripping:
Stripping and clearing should be done carefully by taking into account both short and long-term effects on potential soil erosion.

Different types of earthworks equipment's have been discussed as below:

a) Backactor /Backhoe:
Backactor or backhoe is an excavation machine that uses a digging bucket on the end. Backhoe loaders are usually tractor or loader units that are loader-style buckets at the front and digging buckets on the rear side.

This type of loader is excellent at staying stable while dealing with heavy loads, as they are equipped with hydraulic outriggers, stabilizers, and a pair of legs that can use to ensure some extra safety.

b) Loader shovel:
A loader shovel is equipment used for moving heavy materials from one place to another or into another machinery compartments. A loader shovel is having a large bucket or shovel which is attached with hydraulic arms due to which shovel can work into different positions.

c) Bulldozer:
This equipment is used for various activities like pushing, digging, excavating, and leveling materials at the site location. Bulldozers are having heavy, large blades at the front and some of them are also having rippers at their back.

Different types of bulldozers are given as below,
• Mini Bulldozer
• Wheel Bulldozer
• Crawler Bulldozer

d) Face Shovel:
Face shovels are used to excavate the land on its own wheel track. Face shovels can excavate any type of soil except rocky strata. Usually, rocky strata can be excavated by blasting before the excavation takes place.

e) Multipurpose Excavator:
Multipurpose excavators are usually derived from agricultural tractor with two- and four-wheel drive. This equipment's are used for small excavation works. These equipment's can be modified with different bulldozer blades, grab buckets and post hole auger borers that's the main reason they are known as multipurpose excavators.

f) Road Lorries:
Road lorries are the vehicles which are used to move the mud and other wastage material to transport from one place to another.

g) Unlicensed lorries:
Unlicensed lorries are similar to road lorries but they are not registered and authorized to do such type of earth work activities still operating. Their operating cost are not as high as other registered vehicles. Therefore, these vehicles are used instead of road lorries by the small contractors to reduce the operating cost.

h) Dump trucks and dumpers:
Dumper trucks are the trucks which is used to dump the variety of materials like tree waste, mud waste, gravels and sands to the disposal units. Rigid rear dump trucks are the most commonly used dumpers which is given in the figure.

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1.2) Earthwork Techniques:

• Rock excavation:The term "rock excavation" refers to the process of extracting any kind of hard, compacted, or cemented material that necessitates the use of blasting or ripping and digging equipment that is more advanced than what is necessary for standard excavation.

• Pneumatic breaker:
The compressed air powers a cyclic percussion mechanism in the pneumatic hammer, which is part of the pneumatic tool family. The hammering power generated by this device is subsequently transmitted to a drill or chisel tool bit. The pneumatic hammer is used for drilling into and chipping or breaking apart hard materials such as concrete, asphalt, or tiles.

• Drill and blast:
Explosives and other technologies, such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, are employed in a controlled way to break rock in preparation for excavation during the drilling and blasting process. The mining and quarrying sectors, as well as civil engineering projects such as the construction of dams, tunnels, and highways, are the most prevalent uses for this approach. The result of rock blasting is often referred to as rock cutting. ("Drill and blast | mining methods | american mine services," 2021)

• Rotary percussive drilling:
During rotary percussion drilling, different blade and roller bits on the end of a spinning string of rods are used to hack at and break up the rock. When combined with a chisel bit, a percussive or hammer action can be used to break through tough materials. (Marjoribanks, 2010)

• Rotary drilling:
Deep holes in rock formations may be drilled using a technique known as "air rotary drilling." A drill bit at the end of the drill pipe rapidly turns the borehole forward. The drill bit "cuts" the formation into little pieces known as "cuttings." Rotary drilling is often used to create enormous holes in large quarries, open pit mining, the oil extraction sector, and other locations.

• Blasting:
"Blasting" is the process of breaking up rocks into smaller pieces by using a small amount of an explosive chemical.

• Filling:
When earth is taken out of an area that is higher than where the ground level is supposed to be, this is called a "cut," and when earth is used to fill a hole, this is called a "fill."

• Fill material:
Fill material refers to an earth-based substance used to fill a hole or depression in the ground. It is often used in building and development projects. The term "filling" is derived from the verb "fill," which signifies "to fill in." Fill material may be used to "fill," but it can also be used to grow, as well as to create artificial mounds, grades, and elevations. Fill material is another approach to get the desired grade.

• Compaction plant:
It is constructed from steel drums that are hollow on the inside, allowing the weight distribution to be altered by adding ballast (sand or water) to the rolls. The mass of these rollers may vary from 2100 kg to over 54,000 kg per metre of width, and they are intended to compress practically any kind of soil except uniform and silty sands. (Skinner, 2022)

• Vibrating rollers:
They are excellent for compacting to greater depths and are occasionally used to compact both granular base course and asphalt. They offer greater outputs and better performance than other rollers, although they are typically more expensive.

• Power rammers:
A manually driven compacting machine that is lifted by internal combustion and then let to fall due to gravity. The rammer compacts dirt by striking small areas. This lightweight compaction device may be manually or machine-operated. Cohesive and semi-cohesive soils respond well to Rammer treatments.

1.3) Methods and techniques used to create drainage works:

• Dewatering - control of groundwater
In the construction industry, it is common to use dewatering systems to temporarily lower ground water levels for buildings that go below the level of the groundwater.
• Sumps and sump pumping
A drain made up of an outer tube and a smaller tube inside it that is connected to a suction pump; the outer tube contains many holes that enable fluid and air to flow into its interior and be transported away by the suction tube; the suction tube is connected to the drain by a suction pump.

• Wellpoint system
A number of shallow wells, also known as wellpoints, are built around an excavation as part of a wellpoint dewatering system. These wells are installed at a set depth, and proper spacing is maintained between them. Each wellpoint's depth has already been calculated in advance. The wellpoints are linked to the surface by means of riser pipes, which are then linked to a common header main pipe by means of flexbows. This completes the connection.

• Shallow wells
A well is a hole that has been dug, bored, shoved, or drilled into the soil for the purpose of getting water. A shallow well is one that has a reduced depth. In terms of well depth, a depth of less than 50 feet is considered shallow. An aquifer serves as the source of water for a well.

• Deep wells
It is common to see many deep wells along the perimeter of an excavation in order to provide water. These wells employ submersible borehole pumps to draw groundwater.

Methods and Techniques:
• Digging
Digging means to excavate and remove soil from the ground.

• Timbering
The provision of a trench's side with temporary support may be accomplished via the use of timbering.

2) Analyzing the methods and techniques:

Excavation can be carried out in a number of different ways, including the full open cut method, bracing excavation, anchored excavation, island excavation methods, zonal excavation, top-down construction techniques, and others. The end result of these excavations is the creation of deep foundations. Following are some of the digging methods being considered. ("Methods of excavation used for deep foundation construction," 2018).

How to Perform a Full Open Cut
This strategy is expected to save money since the excavation side will be sloping and the held foundation wall will not need any additional support.

How to Prepare for Excavations
Placing horizontal struts in front of a retaining wall is one method of bracing an excavation. This serves to maintain the excavation's wall under strain.

Digging techniques that are rooted in the earth
This is how anchors are installed in the ground so that they can withstand the weight of the earth. The pressure is applied to the anchor head by the portions of the anchor that are not attached to each other. ("Methods of excavation used for deep foundation construction," 2018)

3) Evaluation:
The concept of limit equilibrium is used by the majority of computer programmes that analyse the stability of slopes, and may be applied to either a two-dimensional or a three-dimensional model.

Frequently Asked Questions for Earthworks & Foundations:

  • What are earthworks activities?
  • What equipment is used in earthworks?
  • What are different foundation types?
  • What are piling works?
  • What are drainage works?
  • What are culverts and underpasses?
  • How are culverts and underpasses built?
  • How are underground utilities installed?
  • What are challenges with large and deep excavations?
  • What are methods for dealing with ground and slope stability issues?

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Learning Outcome 2: Present a site safety plan, risk assessment and method statement for a given civil engineering activity

Task II Part 1:

Question 2.1) Identify the hazards, risks and safety arrangements associated with these activities.



Excavation collapses are very hazardous because they may occur fast, leaving employees (and possibly other persons in the region) less time to escape, particularly if the collapse is large. The pace at which an excavation collapses increases the danger associated with this kind of operation. Suffocation or internal crush injuries might kill anybody caught in the path of the falling earth. The ramifications of this probable event are severe.

An open face, a hole, or a hollow may be created by the process of excavation, which involves the removal of earth or rocks from an area. This may be done with the use of various tools, pieces of equipment, or even explosives.

Work involving excavation may be carried out in a number of different environments, including but not limited to commercial and public locations as well as building sites.

One form of work that may be done during excavations is open excavations.

constructing retaining walls, potholed pits, and excavation trenches for the various shafts and drives.

Excavation includes;
• Collapse of excavation face
• Sloped at safe angle
• Shoring and periodic excavation
• Protection of excavation
• Fall of person
• Falling objects
• Flooding and irruption of water
• Hazardous atmosphere

• Confined Space:
Risk assessment and recommendation

• Working on structures:
These structures and techniques are used in working of structures while performing earthwork
• Safety of working at height:
• Safety of place of work:
• Prevention of falls:
• Working platforms:

• Working on temporary works on highways:
Temporary works must be undertaken before constructing a project. After completion, these structures are destroyed. This includes temporary buildings needed to support the permanent structure while it's being built so it can stand on its own.

Construction-only structures that don't contribute to long-term viability. Boardings, excavation support, coffer dams, heavy plant foundations, haul roads, and temporary road restraint systems.
How far-away components were moved
• Safe means of support
• Construction and maintenance of scaffolds
• Erection of scaffolds
• Inspection of scaffolds
• Boatswain's chair
• Safety net
• Safety belt
• Selection of safety belt
• Training
• Inspection, examination and supervision
• Anchorage point
• Use of safety belt

2.2) A site-specific safety plan is a document that is used to manage risks. It is made by the contractor and kept up to date so that the health and safety of the people who work on the construction site can be managed.

• Safety plan: 14 key elements of safety management system.
1. Security policy
2. Organizational framework for safety
3. Safety training 4. Internal safety policies
5. Inspection schedule\s
5. Inspection schedule\s
7. Procedures for Accident/Incident Investigation\s
7. Procedures for Accident/Incident Investigation\s
9. Contractors' understanding of their safety obligations
10. Committee on Occupational Safety
10. Committee on Occupational Safety
12. Promotional activities
13 Accident prevention programmes
14 Protection against health risks

2.3) Health and safety codes:
Occupational health and safety guidelines for the civil engineering and construction industries included in the code of practise. Workplace and equipment regulations, fire protection, noise control, and machinery safety are all covered. ("Safety and health in building and civil engineering work," 1972)
• F&IUO (Cap 59)
This is the ordinance for factories

• Industrial Undertaking (IU)
This ordinance complies about the industries.

• Proprietor and person employed (Sec 6A)
It is related to the excise and taxes.

• General duties of persons employed (Sec 6B)
It complies to the duties of the persons working in earthworks.

• Mandatory safe training (Sec 6BA)
It is related to the training of the working staff.

• Medical examination of persons employed to work underground (Reg 16A)
16A section is related to the medical examination of the staff of earthworks.

• Report of Accident (Reg 17)
If any accident happens, this regulation is to report the accident.

2.4) Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge:

Building projects need project and programme management systems. The goal is to create realistic projects while maintaining fiscal discipline. In construction, several people must work together to finish on schedule and within budget. Risk assessment and management systems may raise construction productivity, decrease losses, and increase profitability. These construction dangers might affect the project's quality, timeline, and money. Experience, intuition, and good judgement may be important in construction management and risk assessment. China Roads and Bridge Corporation implemented a number of risk management measures throughout the construction of the HK Zhuhai Macao Bridge

It will investigate how risks were recognized, addressed, and minimized during the course of the program, as well as how well various hazard control systems operated. The relationship between construction and project management pushes everyone to work successfully, which saves money and time.

Frequently Asked Questions for Health & Safety in Civil Engineering:

  • What are the main areas of focus for the company's health and safety program?
  • Why is health and safety a priority?
  • What are health and safety legislation and codes of practice?
  • What are the hazards and risks associated with excavations?
  • What are the hazards and risks associated with working in confined spaces?
  • What are the hazards and risks associated with working on structures?
  • What are the hazards and risks associated with temporary works?
  • What is a site safety plan?
  • Why are site safety plans, risk assessments, and method statements important?

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Learning Outcome 3: Evaluate a given civil engineering problem and propose a solution

TASK 1 part II:

1) Evaluation of 4 processes:

Geotechnical engineering is one of the most important jobs for sustainable development because it can be used for almost any kind of project. But this sector has to deal with a tough contradiction between meeting the project's goals and keeping it going in the long run.

Civil engineering environmental contexts
• Environmental duty
It is against the law for someone to do something that will hurt the environment or is likely to hurt the environment unless steps have been taken to stop the damage or lessen it.

Civil engineering quality contexts
• Objective of quality in construction
Always use a quality management system for our construction job. Achieve and maintain excellent work standards to strengthen our and our customers' reputations. Follow all legislative regulations and criteria.
• Quality assurance in construction
To ensure the quality in construction is the most important thing in earthwork phase.
• Quality control in construction
Construction quality control is a management system whose main goal is to make sure that the final product meets the customer's requirements and specifications. (Buma, 2021)
• Elements of quality
Quality is ensured by the proper planning and assurance of the project to be done on time.
• Factors affecting construction project quality
The owners, consultants, and contractors deemed material prices, availability of resources as planned throughout the duration of the project, and average delay as a result of closures leading to a shortage of materials to be the most important factors affecting the performance of construction projects.

Civil engineering geotechnical contexts
• What is foundation construction
The foundation is the lowest level of a building. It has two main functions. First, it keeps moisture and water from the ground from getting into the building. Second, it spreads the weight of the building out evenly on the ground below through load-bearing walls.
• Purpose of foundation
The purpose of foundation is to give the building firm support
• Function of foundation in construction
During construction, foundation helps to pertain the network and shape of building.
• Requirements of a good foundation
Foundation should be robust enough to minimize differential soil settling if load isn't distributed evenly. It should be a certain depth to prevent harm from soil expansion or compression. ("Requirements of good foundation-Civil snapshot," 2018)

Civil engineering economic contexts
• What is engineering economics
Engineering economics involves coming up with, estimating, and judging the economic effects of different ways to reach a specific goal.

• Objectives of economics
Full employment or low unemployment, stable prices, more growth of economy that will last and the balance of payments is in balance are the objectives of economics.
Economic problem
A major economic problem is how to get the most out of limited resources. ("The economic problem," 2020)

3.2) Solution to the problem:
Human civilization and nature interact and impact each other via the built environment. The constructed environment facilitates these things. You must be aware of this reliance to properly comprehend civil engineering sustainability. The main problem is how to do earthworkand this report gives details of all the structures, and equipment and also covers all the major aspects.

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Learning Outcome 4: Prepare a design proposal for a new infrastructure project

Question: 4.1) Methods and techniques used in flexible pavement design:

Today, two approaches to flexible pavement structural design are widely used:
empirical design

• There is total two types of pavements which is given as below:
Rigid pavement
Flexible pavement

• Flexible pavement:
Flexible pavements can be defined as road areas made with the use of asphalt having a tendency to bend and deflect due to traffic loads. These pavements are less susceptible to damage and require fewer repairs for a certain period of time.

• Rigid pavement:
Rigid pavements can be defined as road areas made out of Portland cement concrete slabs resting on a granular subgrade material.

• Advantages of rigid pavement:
In rigid pavement system it is having the high capacity and endurance to maintain its own shape regardless loads from the heavy traffic vehicles and bad weather situation. Still roads designed with the help of concrete is cost effective and does not require any high maintenance cost and also have the longer design life.

• Comparison of flexible and rigid types of pavements:
When there is a comparison between flexible and rigid pavement systems, flexible pavement systems are having more layers as compared to rigid pavement systems. This results in better damage assurance as compared to a rigid pavement system. Clearly flexible pavements are more recommendable as compared to rigid pavements.

1) Describe methods and techniques used to create complex foundations, piling works, and drainage works.

Methods and techniques used to create piling works:

• Shallow foundation:
A shallow foundation is one that has a depth that is 5 times smaller than its initial breadth. Examples of shallow foundations include combination footing, individual footing, cover mat, and stem wall.

• Piled foundation:
Pile foundations are forms of deep foundations that use lengthy piles of concrete or wood. The piles have been properly arranged to form the right foundation (Atkinson, 2007).

• Displacement piles:
Displacement piles, also known as driven piles, are utilized to support the structure. They are in charge of transmitting loads from the structure to the earth layers.

3) In the next paragraphs, we'll discuss construction-related elements:

1. Place-pouring Bridge-building techniques
This flexible bridge-building system makes it simple to create dams in difficult geometric designs. This strategy helps you transfer pre-made items that are too big or too far away.

2. Balanced cantilever bridges
This technology builds 50- to 250-meter bridges. It may be factory-made or erected on-site. Each end of the cantilevers, which are supported by piers, is linked differently.

3. Precast Bridge Elements
This technology uses precast concrete bridge components. Prefabrication takes numerous forms. Already-made components include:
» Ahead-of-time beams
» Cast-in-place Decks
» Precast deck segments
4. Bridge-building "Span Casting"
This approach is similar to cantilever, but technology has made it more cost-effective and faster. This method can be employed on 60-meter-long bridges and viaducts.
5. How "incremental launching" builds bridges
The ILM builds bridges incrementally. It's used to create concrete or steel girder bridges. This approach phases the procedure.
6. Cable-stayed bridges
With cable-stayed structure, cables carry the bridge deck from each tower. Either side of the tower works. These bridges can stretch more than 300 metres.
7. Arch bridges
Arch-shaped bridges may save money while crossing tough terrain. Because of new techniques to make arches, they're cheaper. ("Different methods of bridge construction and their selection," 2013)
• Foundation depth
This is important because more depth in the bridge foundation will give more strength to the bridge.

• Soil bearing capacity
It helps to tell how much load a bridge can bear based on the soil conditions of the area.

• Foundation materials
It comprises the materials used in the foundation of the bridge which are mostly concrete and steel.

• Foundation load transfer
Load is transferred in Bridges by the Tension (in the stringers and sway bracing) and compression (in the pillars).

• Design parameters of foundation in seismic zones
Seismic waves impose additional strain on the ground, therefore foundations in earthquake-prone locations must cope with these pressures. If the structure cannot withstand these forces, it may collapse, which would be a calamity. ("Design parameters of foundations in seismic zones," 2010)

• General considerations in the seismic design of foundation
Extra loads are produced in the case of foundations as a result of seismic vibrations in earthquake-prone zones. It is critical that the design considers the extra forces.

• Soil investigations for seismic designs
Spectra of response is the approach used in frequency analysis. The maximal acceleration for a given frequency and damping is computed using seismic maps and soil parameters.

Main factors that influence site effects
» What the structure serves.
» The appearance and size of the structure.
» The appearance of the terrain.
» How earth dirt is formed. (Suryakanta, 2015)

• Earthquake characteristics
To understand the workings of tectonic processes on both a global and local scale, one must first grasp what an earthquake is. These factors include the location of the earthquake, its magnitude, the fault alignment, and the direction in which the ground changed.
Effects of earthquakes
Earthquakes cause damage to the earth's structure and rupture many buildings, bridges, etc.

• Measures to prevent liquefaction
This can be overcome by using the proper amount of gravel and replacing the soil of the area.

Methods and techniques used to create flexible highways
• Planning and development
It is the most important step in creating highways because planning is essential before any development work to be done.

• Financing
Budget is necessary because it will guide the amount and type of material to be used.

• Environmental impact assessment
EIA is necessary for any big projects as it will tell the effect of that project on the environment.

• Design
Design is necessary to make anything flexible or whatever the requirements are.

• Geometric design
it tells the geometry and shape of the construction.

• Materials
It is according to the requirements and scope of the project, and also depends on the budget.
Methods and techniques used in highway link and junction design:
• Choice of junction type
The amount of traffic presently present on both the main road and the side roads, as well as the amount of traffic increase expected in the near future, is an important aspect that helps define the kind of junction that should be built at a certain site.

• Spacing of junctions
It is important to contact the Highway Authority for any intersections that are located on county roads, as junction spacing varies with the land use.

Signalized junction
Mostly 4-way junction are signalized to lessen the chances of accidents.

• Legal aspects of road traffic signals
You should under no circumstances attempt to go around another vehicle while it is turning. You should always go in the direction that the light signals are pointing when you see them.

2.4) Design and construction of stayed cable bridge:

Anything that has been cable-stayed In the Moroccan city of Rabat-SaléKénitra, you may find the Bouregreg bridge. There will be less congestion in the residential area of Hay Riad, which is located in the western part of the capital city, as construction on this section of the new 41.5-kilometer-long Rabat highway bypass through the city of Rabat advances. The main bridge is made with three spans of 183, 376, and 183 meters with a width of 29.82 meters. The total length of the bridge is 951.66 meters. From one end to the other, the bridge span is 951.66 meters long. A concrete slab, two edge girders built of pre-stressed concrete, and steel cross beams make up the main girder of a cable-stayed bridge. There are four distinct, curved legs that are spaced apart that make up the pointed arch at the top of the concrete pylon. (Wang, Dai, He, Dai, & Zhang, 2019)

Frequently Asked Questions for Project Planning and Design

  • What are the different contexts considered during project planning and design?
  • What methods are used in highway design?
  • What techniques are used to create bridge foundations?
  • What are the foundation criteria for flexible highway construction?
  • What methods and techniques are used to create flexible highways?
  • What methods are used in highway link and junction design?
  • What is flexible pavement design?

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