Qualification - Higher National Diploma in Business (RQF)
Unit Name - Consumer Behaviour and Insight
Unit Number - Unit 37
Assignment Title - Consumer Behaviour Report
Learning Outcome 1: Demonstrate the ability to map a path to purchase in a given category, including the decision -making process.
Learning Outcome 2: Evaluate appropriate forms of research to understand influences on the decision -making process (B2C and B2B)
Learning Outcome 3: Evaluate how marketers influence the different stages of the decision -making process (B2C and B2B)
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You must focus on understanding consumer behavior relating to a particular product or service of your chosen company or brand. For example, you may want to consider some of the following questions: What are the pre -purchase, purchase, or post -purchase processes for c onsumers? What are the most relevant external influences on these processes? What can the companies learn from these processes and how can they influence them? How should the companies change their marketing strategies to improve image and product positioning, the acquisition process for consu mers, to enhance consumer experience with the product, and influence consumer satisfaction and loyalty?
Consumer behaviour is uncertain and dynamic; the organisations are thus focusing on the decision-making of the consumers and the process that the consumers undergo before and after making a purchase decision. The below-presented report focuses on the decision-making process that is well explained below and its importance to the marketers. A comparison between the b2b and b2c decisions is also provided. It provides differentiation in the b2b and b2c research methods for marketers and decision-making. The evolution of the factors and ways through which the decision making can be influenced.
This will be presented as a report to the CEO and should include the following:
1. Explain and analyse the stages of the consumer decision -making journey for your chosen product/service.
Consumer behaviour is a vital part of the organisation. It mainly depends on the development of the individuals' decision-making and focuses on the purchase journey explained below (Hamilton et al. 2019). The stages related to the consumer decision making are provided through which the whole decision-making process of the customers is explained with the help of five key stages that are provided below:
The first stage of the decision-making journey starts with problem recognition; it focuses on identifying the consumer needs. The consumers focus on the needs and the problems faced by them and make efforts to search for alternatives that can resolve the problems of the consumers (Kumar et al. 2020). As it can be seen in the case of Spotify, the prospects were facing issues of storing a large number of songs in the smartphones, and it was taking a huge part of the storage. Thus, the organisation identified the problem and came with the solution of online listening to music. It has different packages that the customers or the listeners can purchase, offering ad-free music, unlimited downloads for offline music and better quality of songs to give the listeners the best experience.
Information Search (Please be specific how and use what ways to search)
Consumers search for different information and research for a recommendation from the market, family, internet, etc., related to the products and services available. The consumers can use company websites, social media, mobile applications, ratings and reviews, search engines, word of mouth publicity and visiting the stores personally. The customers also focus on the risks involved and analyse the benefits and limitations to buy or decide to purchase services like the premium subscription of Spotify (Stankevich, 2017). For example, the search engines can provide ratings and reviews of subscribers who have purchased the premium version of Spotify to know its worth. The customers thus analyse the premium service's benefits and the restrictions related to the premium membership. The better sound quality and tad free music is the key benefit that the free users are not provided with.
Evaluation of Alternatives( what exactly to be evaluated, e.g. price, product quality etc.)
Consumers then evaluate the alternatives available; it provides with the competitors, and the stage provides different substitutes. The customers at the stage provide different questions that must be answered and analysed (Zakand Hasprova, 2020). There are various things that a customer can evaluate based on their needs. This can be subjective to price or inexpensiveness, warranties or number of alternatives available, quality of the product and features, terms and conditions of purchase, and many other aspects. The customers seek reviews of the existing customers, the variety of services to other competitors are offerings like Apple Music plus the prices are also considered. Thus, Spotify has the free version available that has the normal audio quality and available songs with advertisements (Willman-Iivarinen, 2017). The customers can evaluate by using other platforms offerings of music. The application of Spotify has a differentiated interface that is simply best as it provides an auto customised playlist and recommendations based on the listening activity of the listeners.
Purchase (please elaborate based on what to make a purchase decision)
The stage of purchase is where the customer makes the decision and proceeds with the payment. The purchase decision is crucial and is based on several elements such as when to buy, what to buy and from whom to buy. The consumer can evaluate the factors mentioned above and assess the value that the product adds and its utility in lieu of the amount spent. The level of feedback (negative or positive), motivating factors, and past shopping experiences also influence the final purchase decision after all the evaluation and research related to the product (Karpenkoand Ivannikova, 2020).
Post purchase feedback(Please explain post-purchase is important to both consumer and marketer, e.g. build-up customer and brand loyalty, or conversely, to have dissonance that reduces buying behaviour)
The review stage is necessary as it focuses on the information related to the satisfaction of the customer and the experience after buying the products or rendering the services. The customers provide the reviews and feedback based on which the services are improvised in future (Moraes et al. 2019). The post-purchase feedback is significant for both buyer, and the seller as the customer will only make a repeated purchase when the product satisfies the customer. Further, a customer can influence the buying decision of other customers based on their satisfaction levels with the product. However, cognitive dissonance plays a major role here as it can result in buyer's remorse. For example, if a customer experiences anxiety or tension post-purchase or is questioned about the purchase decision, it might influence the future purchase decision for the product. This also affects the marketer as the dissonance results in advertising a competitive product, thus influencing brand loyalty, repeated purchases, and buying behaviour (Moraes, 2019). Spotify focuses on the services and the feedback through which new changes can be brought in, and the customer problems are identified and resolved continuously. Spotify also engages customers by offering VIP benefits or additional product service benefits to keep the consumer engaged post-purchase and reduce the cognitive dissonance.
All the stages must be considered as it is the essential part of the product purchase, and the buyers go through the stages (Solomon et al., 2012). The utilisation of the consumer decision-making process can be done by the organisation to ensure that all the queries and the doubts of the customers are resolved through which the customers can make rational decisions. Spotify has focused on the identification of the customer needs and provides the best-differentiated services or the listening experience to its users. The organisation has one of the major customer bases through which it generates revenue, and the feedback is also entertained by the organisation that allows Spotify to regularly identify new problems that the listeners are facing are trying to resolve the problems continuously (Li, 2019). For instance, it provides the free option to create playlists for the users that can be customized.
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2. Explain why it is important for marketers to map a path to purchase.
Consumer decision making is essential for the organisation to understand and for the marketers as it helps the marketer to know the problems that the customers are facing and allows the marketers to communicate (Kim, 2021). The organisation focuses on the identification of the consumer needs as the consumers preferences are rapidly changing through social media, increased consumption and the massive availability of options. The organisation is provided with the information related to the customer needs through which various benefits can be availed that are followed below:
The consumer decision-making process understanding helps the marketers to market the products and services according to the preferences of the customers and helps to provide tailored services and products. For Spotify, it has allowed knowing the different periods of subscriptions like previously organisation had yearly and monthly packages for premium users; now, it also offers the premium services for a day if required at reasonable prices to the listeners (ShinandYu, 2021). The organisation is facilitated with the problems that the customers are facing, and the marketers can focus on communicating the market issues and problems to the other functional areas of the business through which the organisation ensures the development of the products and services that resolves the customer queries effectively.
The organisation or the marketers can focus on building a healthy relationship and focus on long term relationships. The organisation, through the identification of the consumer needs and regularly, focuses on the improvements (Gretzel et al. 2006). The long-term relationship by the marketers can be maintained through which the customers are retained, behaviour, perception and demographics are required to be considered.
The marketers can market in an innovative manner through which the customers are approached using tailored marketing and the trending marketing concepts for attracting. It helps to trigger the customers and generate the interest of the customers to buy or make a purchase decision (Hamilton et al., 2021). It has the focus towards the mapping through which the organisation can attract customers effectively.
The organisation can create a business plan through the utilisation of marketing and identifying the customer decision-making process. The desires of the customers are analysed and based on the desires of the customers (Chatterjeeand Kundu, 2020). The identification of the consumer touchpoints that are necessary for fulfilling the customer needs can be made with the help of a journey map, and it provides with helps the organisation with the achievement of the consumer-centric goals (Reynoldsand Gutman, 2020). Consumer decision making is thus vital for the formation of a rational business plan; it can help in the formation of the marketing plan, the product and service development, etc.
The promotional methods can be rationally selected by the organisation or the marketers through the use of the consumer decision-making process. The buying stage of the decision-making process helps the marketers to know which of the promotional methods will be useful for promotions and sales generation (Reklaitisand Pileliene, 2019). The consumer insights are utilised by the marketers through which the key focus areas of the decision making can be provided with greater attention. The organisation can emphasise the way to meet the needs of the customers and can bring in an enhanced level of consumer satisfaction.
The decision-making process allows the marketers to identify the gaps between the business objectives and focuses on the development of the framework. It is based on which the employees of the organisation can dedicatedly work towards improvisation (Habibi et al. 2015). The overall enhancement of the customer satisfaction by bringing in the changes with the aim to improve and ease the buying process.
These are the key benefits to the marketers of the organisation linked with the mapping and consumer decision making process. It helps the marketers to improve the marketing and the organisation to serve the customers with more advanced services and products (Silva et al. 2020). It resolves the problems of the customers on a regular basis and allows to retain the customers by increasing the loyalty through which the organisation can strengthen the competitive edge and market positioning.
3. Evaluate how marketers of your organisation are responding to the decision -making process, applying relevant concepts and models.
The market or the consumer base is highly uncertain and not loyal, the purchase decisions of the organisation. Thus, it is essentially required for the organisation to understand that consumer behaviour is sensitive and dynamic (Tricahyono et al. 2018). The organisation thus did not provide only the premium services, along with that the free services to the users are also provided for listening to the songs that include the advertisements and limited features. Further, those users who need the premium services and avoid advertisements, avail download of songs can buy the premium services with different packages based on durations (Vonderau, 2019). The marketers utilise various theories to understand the customer needs and behaviour that are followed below:
The marketers often use the classical conditioning approach to influence consumer behaviour by associating the brand with a specific feeling, response or emotion. When a customer gets a positive response from the brand, then they are willing to pay higher just to get associated with it. For example, the buy one get one approach is an excellent example of classical conditioning (Stach, 2017) based on the policy of rewards and offers being made to sustain customers. Nike uses athletes to attract more customers as they develop a feeling of inspiration by showing the most successful and professional players who have done extremely well in sports. This develops the connection between the band endorser and his fan following, which results in the promotion of the brand and attract sales. This results in sustaining consumer behaviour and helps the marketer maintain sales. The model presented by Nicosia is based on communication and highlights the process of communication between the consumers and the brands. The use of the consumer behaviour model focuses on the message that is generated by the advertisement of the brand first influences the predisposition of the consumer to the services (Buchananand Huczynski, 2019). It has the search, evaluation, decision and outcome stages of the consumer behaviour through which marketers can market the services accordingly. The theory of Mintzberg is a further effective theory that is used by marketers to respond the decision making. It helps to make the project decisions related to cost and management consultancy. The restructuring of the cost or management can be done with the help of the application of the theory (Kondalkar, 2020). The model of Simon presented in the year 1960 is also an effective model with three key stages that are intelligence, design and choice activity.
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4. Compare and contrast the key differences of the contexts of B2C and B2B, by specific examples.
(The key differences in decision-making between B2B and B2C:
1. Team Vs individual decision-making process
2. High involvement vs low involvement (i.e. long consideration time vs short consideration time)
3. Rational/logical decision-making process vs emotional/impulse decision-making process )
B2B is a more team approach as it involves lesser customers and extensive research involving higher costs. It is a High involvement function as it focuses on generating leads and takes longer time and logic to make a decision (Bratton, 2020). B2C is short term process as it involves customers who change preferences easily, and decision making is impulse-based on market needs and trends.
B2B is the business-to-business approach of marketing, and B2C is the business to consumer marketing approach. The approaches majorly differ for the organisation at the time of selling the products or services. The commercial transactions are considered, and the buying and selling are done in bulk, mainly between one business to another (Bratton, 2020). The B2C, on the other hand, has limited selling in terms of quantity per customer. The transaction between business to the customer takes place in the process.
The B2C decision-making process mainly depends on different elements that are relatively the same somewhere, like the quality of the services, the prices and different basic considerations before making a buying decision. The buyer or the consumer focus on the value more than the quantity of the supplies available with the organisation (McKenna, 2020). The B2B includes purchaser who purchases to generate profit and strengthen the competitive advantage of the organisation. On the other hand, the direct customers seek value and rational prices. Thus the decision making of the customers focuses on the evaluation of different alternatives, price comparisons and other necessary elements like the after-sale services, etc. (Wilson, 2017). The customers also focus on the generation of trust that is essentially required, as it was identified in research that the customers to date are insecure and feel unsafe buying from the online platforms. Thus, B2C marketing is essentially required to focus on the generation of trust and ensure the customers about the safety of the transactions and delivery of services and goods is also ensured in online businesses (Ayokoand Ashkanasy, 2019). It might affect the revenue generation of Spotify. Thus the generation of trust and ensuring the customers is necessary for B2C.
The focus of business-to-business marketing is towards building the relationship for the long term, and the decision-making process is the key for B2B marketing. The key factor is quality that is required to be considered by the organisation (Skinnerand Stewart, 2017). it is one of the key factors through which the organisation can ensure the generation of a long-term relationship with the B2B clients. The customer services are also essentially required to be considered as the key for the b2b relations, as the queries and problems of the other business are required to be resolved. It focuses on the businesses with whom the organisation i.e., Spotify, is operating, like the brands advertising on Spotify such as YouTube and Netflix (Jeanes, 2019). The artists listing their albums and music to Spotify for generation of revenue and higher income are also the other businesses, and the organisation is essentially required to resolve the problems that these other businesses face, and the quality results are required to be ensured to the other businesses.
For instance, YouTube is one of the biggest video surfing platforms; thus, when it advertises with Spotify, it is essentially required for Spotify to ensure YouTube about the quality results of marketing on Spotify and good customer services (Christiana, 2018). On the other hand, the marketing of the organisation is essentially required to consider that customer services are also essential in the business to consumer relationship to retain the users of Spotify. The marketing in B2C differs as the users of Spotify are interested in artists available on the platform; thus, different famous artists are marketed and tailored by the marketers specifically based on the interest and the history of listeners (Duttaand Khatri, 2017). The AI-enabled platform of Spotify is advanced, and the recommendations are automated based on the user's taste in music. It allows the brand to retain the users on Spotify and helps the brand to market the music, albums, artists effectively to enhance customer loyalty and satisfaction.
These are the key comparisons and the contrasts related to the decision making of business to business and business to consumers (Xia et al. 2020). The organisation must focus on the decision making that enables the marketers of the organisation to market and approach accordingly.
5. Evaluate the different approaches to market research and methods of research used for understanding the decision making process in both B2C and B2B.
The key differences in market research between B2B and B2C:
1. small sample size vs large sample size
2. different research methodology, e.g. interview/tele-interview (qualitative approach) vs quantitative in B2C)
3. different skillset, B2B required expertise in that particular industry because to meet the strategic need of the B (organizational customer).
The b2b target market is specific, and therefore smaller sizes samples are used to understand the broader perspectives of consumer needs, preferences, opinions based on qualitative and quantitative data both to understand numbers and experience (Surveys, interviews, literature reviews and observations). This requires expertise for doing research which costs money, time, and energy. It requires industry knowledge to identify who their customers are and what they want, and how the business can meet their needs (Reklaitis and Pileliene, 2019).
On the other hand, in b2c, the sample size is large as there are many competitors offering similar products in the market to a larger number of customers. This enables the identification of the right target audience who is willing and able to buy a certain product. This also provides an understanding of consumer needs and preferences and willingness to pay (Reklaitis and Pileliene, 2019). Better market research will lead to enhanced brand awareness leading to higher revenues and a larger pool of consumers. The b2c research is focused on quantitative data such as through surveys, observations and close-ended questions.
Different approaches of marketing are required to be evaluated based on the decision-making process in B2B and B2C. the organisation has a major focus towards B2C marketing as the customers of the b2c are more, and the sample size is thus larger in comparison with the b2b clients (Martin, 2017). The organisation researches to target the b2c clients and focuses on targeting through the use of reliable data for marketing. The pool of prospects is targeted in the b2c. On the other hand, the limited b2b clients are available, and thus the marketing is limited. The sample size of the b2b marketing is also small as compared to b2c (Bracher and May, 2019).
The research for marketing in b2c is done through the utilisation of the customer-oriented approach. The use of the customer-oriented approach facilitates the organisation to focus on the identification of the perspective of the customers at the time of purchasing the products and services and making the purchase decisions. The b2c marketing approach and research focus on researching the key aspects through which the customer relationships can be enhanced and improved. The organisation is provided with a loyal customer base, and effective retention as the research aims to retain the customers and market in an effective manner through which the customers can be retained (DISEMBER, 2021). Different marketing tactics are utilised, including gifts, discount coupons, vouchers, loyalty points, etc.
The research for the b2b is mainly done with the utilisation of the mixed approach that can utilise qualitative, quantitative and ethnographic approaches majorly depending upon the type of results the organisation seeks or expects from the research on other businesses decision-making processes. The b2b research is complex and complicated data is involved (Praba, 2021). The use of the research also emphasises the multiple approaches through which the decisions can be made, and the organisation can understand the decision-making process of the purchasers. The approaches such as the tele depth approach are utilised to research the needs of purchasers for marketing to know the needs and ensure the effective communication that takes place between b2b. on the other hand, the quantitative research methods are mainly utilised for the decision-making process of b2c; it focuses on the quantitative data of the prospects needed to be targeted specifically based on different segmentations like geographical locations, demographics, etc. (Jari et al. 2020). The organisation, through the use of quantitative data, can focus on establishing effective marketing campaigns by understanding the b2c decision-making process.
For instance, the group or percentage of listeners of Spotify preferring jazz music and the percentage of Spotify users preferring hip hop music. The use of quantitative research enables to know the decision making of the consumer base to the organisation in the b2c scenario. At the same time, the b2b purchasers and clients seek quality, quantity and ethnographic results. For instance, the organisations advertising on Spotify are required to focus on the quality results and more reach, and at a similar moment, the artists or the singers seek for a greater number of listeners and the fan base to listen to their music on Spotify (Chitale et al. 2019). Thus, it focuses on mixed research methods. It is not the specific rule of thumb to utilise the quantitative method of research for the b2c and mixed approach for b2b; the organisation can utilise any of the suitable methods of research based on the goals and the results for which the organisation seeks.
Quantitative market research provides numeric data, and on the other hand, qualitative research methods seek results that cannot be presented in numeric form but facilitate the other businesses or consumers in different ways.
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6. Evaluation of how different factors influence decision -making and buying behaviour by specific examples.
Different factors affect the decision making of the buyers that are required to be evaluated and justified. The factors that influence consumer decision making emphases on the psychological, personal, emotional and social factors. The organisation majorly considers these factors as the key influencers of the decision making. The income of the customer, social class and culture, etc., are the key drivers and the factors (Okaforand Afolabi, 2021). The emotions connected with the products or services, like the songs available on Spotify. For selling the premium services, the true music listeners are required to be targeted as the personal factor influences their decision to buy the premium services.
Factors Elements Examples
Psychological Motivation, Learning, Perception, attitude and beliefs The decision to purchase clothing or a movie ticket is highly psychological as it is impacted by the personal thoughts and beliefs of the consumers.
Cultural, Culture, sub-culture, social class A CEO will make a different purchase decision based on his social status as compared to an employee.
Economic Personal and family income, consumer credit, savings etc. The decision to purchase a car will be assessed more in economic terms than a subscription to a music app (Hamilton et. al. 2019).
Social Family, reference groups, status, peers. The decision to purchase a car will be more influenced by social groups as it involves high pricing, high switching costs, past experiences, and family advice.
Personal Age, occupation, lifestyle Middle-aged people are more conscious about savings, future plans as compared to youngsters spending more on entertainment, clothing and travel.
The socially upper-class users of Spotify majorly seek the premium who are addicted to music and who regularly need music without interruptions while listening. The organisation has considered the personal and the psychological factor and has customised the packages for premium services; it came up with a weekly package for the listeners after identifying that the user also required the premium services of listening to ad-free music and quality music for a week. Most of the users now try the premium subscription of Spotify for a week that helps the users to make the decisions to avail subscription for another week or month (Van Bussel, 2020). The customer attitude is required to be considered, age group and the perception, personality, etc., the social factor like the status, reference groups, and family, etc. are required to be considered as the key factor that influences the decision making of the users.
7. Evaluate how marketers can influence the different stages of the decision-making process of B2C and B2B, giving specific examples.
The customers, before buying the goods and availing of any of the services, focus on the decision-making process. The decision making by the customers mainly weights on a common path and the buying process (?alaand State, 2020). It is required for the organisation to focus on the decision-making process and to generate sales, providing numerous business opportunities, and the marketers are required to figure out how the stages of the decision-making process of b2b and b2c customers can be influenced. The organisation, through the use of various processes and strategies, can influence the decision-making process of the customers and purchasers. The identification of the target audience is one of the ways that contribute to influencing the decisions of the buyers.
The organisation utilises qualitative and quantitative research for influencing decision making. It includes different market segmentation tools like the demographics, locations, geographic locations and other factors like age, etc. the analysis of the psychographic and behavioural segments is also done that focuses on the perceptions of the customers and allows the organisation to enhance the loyalty of the customers, brand attributes, and sales generation, etc. (El-Ebiary et al. 2020). The organisations are also focusing on niche marketing through which the marketing of the products to the niche that is the specific segment is done. For instance, Spotify markets Mexican music to the niche, i.e. the group of listeners who listen to Mexican music frequently.
The organisation can influence the decision-making process of the Mexican song listeners through the marketing of the Mexican songs and playlists that are tailored for the listens based on their listening activities of the past. The b2b, on the other hand, is provided with advertisements to the specific customer base who are regularly using YouTube or Netflix, for instance (Volchenko et al. 2020). The listens listening to any of the artists regularly are provided with the update whenever the new song is released by the artist on Spotify, it allows the b2b and b2c both the clients to make rational decisions and purchase the services of Spotify.
The utilisation of the online channels for marketing is mainly done currently by the organisation, and it has provided numerous benefits to the consumers to communicate and helps in purchasing decisions, as the marketers of the brand market numerous benefits and features of the products and services offered by the brands. The after-sales services and different options that facilitate the buying decisions of the customers like easy cancellations, digital payments, regular reminders to purchase premium, round the clock customer support services, etc., are a few methods that can influence the decision making of the buyers (Boekand Sanders, 2020). The convenience and the differentiated services through which the organisation can influence the decision making of the customers. For instance, Spotify allows the premium members to listen to the songs offline that is the premium feature that can drive the purchase decision of the buyers.
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8. Critically evaluate how marketers influence each stage of the decision-making process concerning relevant methods and models applied.
Problem Recognition is the stage where the marketer focuses on the research, and through the research, it can identify the problems faced by the customers. The recognition of the problems faced by the clients helps to know the available solutions that the brands can bring in to influence the decision making of the buyers and make the customers choose their services that have the potential to resolve the problems recognised (Kim et al. 2019). The marketers can identify the problems through reviews and feedback, regularly surveying through the use of social media, etc. Information Search is another way to focus on the solutions that are feasible and have the potential to resolve the customer problems. The organisations influence the decision making of the buyers by identifying the information related to the solutions available through the use of research and development, social media, past experiences and the existing problems faced by the customers in the services or the products of the rivals.
Purchase is the stage that can be influenced by the marketers of the organisation through effective use of marketing. The trending marketing concepts and the innovative marketing of the organisation are some of the key factors that are required to be considered as these factors triggers the target audi9ence to make the purchase decisions; different aggressive marketing tactics are used by the organisation to market the products and services and gain the attention of the users (Ogwuelekaand Ogbonna, 2018). Postpurchase feedback and other services are also the key considerations that influence purchase decisions. The after-sale services, regular support services to the customers and easy cancellations of the premium services by Spotify.
The information provided above evaluates consumer behaviour majorly. It provides the application of the decision-making process of the consumers and the consumer journey analysed in detail. The significance to the marketers is provided above. The b2c and b2b decision making processes are also compared and considered. B2B and B2C differ in terms of market research and influences the decision-making process. B2B focuses more on generating leads and sustaining relations, whereas b2c focuses on attracting large customers and enhancing revenues. It focuses on the key differences between the decision-making processes. The report further provides the evaluation of the ways through which an organisation can influence the decision-making process of the buyers.
- The firm must enhance its technology to make stronger predictions about B2c or B2B marketing, such as predictive analysis, use of AI or BI tools.
- It can also focus on personalized advertising or user-based content to improve its marketing.
- It can also enhance its market research through co-marketing partnerships, invest in R&D and launch its own record label to enhance sales.