Course: Higher National Certificate in Construction and the Built Environment


Modern life demand and potential environmental effects have determined the service building engineer to be a main member of the design and building team. Therefore, the occupancy spaces must then be offered with ventilation that permits functioning as needed and cooling assistance that avoids the overheating of the building and offers maintenance of environmental comfortability for all occupants. Therefore, this study will offer a background introduction to the design principles and the installation of the air conditioning and ventilation system, which is present in every building today. Therefore, the study will cover the design / pre-design brief, cooling loads, design data, overall cooling loads, the capacity of cooling plant, overheating of building, temperature in peak summertime, specifications and sizing of ventilation and systems of air conditioning components, testing, commissioning and procedure of handovers. The study will have provided air conditioning and ventilation systems objectives upon completing the system.

This focuses on the ventilation principle and design installation and air-conditioning report. Therefore, the air conditioning system refers to a design system that offers to cool the house and provides building comfortability( Bird,2009). Regarding others, the ventilation system is purely designed to offer the space of very fresh air, which is got an external source. In comparison, unlike the air conditioning system, the system of ventilation purpose is less based on a cycle. A system of ventilation, therefore, purity functions of the contained air inside the home or workplace. The infiltrated air mixes outside with the inside air and removes the air also. In this regard, therefore, the report begins by identifying information pre-design needed for veneration on a ventartion on the non-domestic system and a system of air conditioning. Subsequent analysis section of cooling load and also for building on non-domestic.

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Assignment - System Design and Cooling Load Analysis

Unit 10: Principles of Ventilation & Air-conditioning Design & Installation

Lo1. Identification of information on pre-design needed for a system in non-domestic air conditioning and ventilation.

Many process ranges are taken into account for the ability to design and install a system in air conditioning and ventilation for an industry or non-domestic purpose.

The below steps also explain how air-conditioning and ventilation design is created, based on (Race, L., (2006), series in CIBSE Knowledge: Plymouth KS8: of the Latimer Trend and Company Limited., TS2017-15-1-page 4 Baldock and Slides (The activity-based development structure and design matrix (DSM) that is optimised on the air-conditioning and ventilation process of design by the Doug Baldock).

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P.1 Pre-design

Obtain the design brief required from the client: A typical design brief will provide an outline in regard the client'sclient's requirements basic, like the functional performance, scope, purpose, quality, cost of the needed product, and in that regard the time required scales for the whole project must then be offered and be delivered.

"Design briefs don't mostly request certain /specific air-conditioning and ventilation. They mostly concentrate in the tendon the overall outcomes which are then achieved, for instance, the condition internally which must occur at this moment delivered" ( The guide on CIBS 2006, section 3.1-Page 10)

Identify the building and client user requirements and needs - additional information that may not be included or clear within the initially offered design brief is requested from the investor or the client; this includes usage details, occupancy, and potential alos loads internally. The client will need an internal condition design to offer the delivery the perceived as working comfortably / living environment and enable the most business to efficiently function. In this regard, the stage is important in understanding and identifying all the client'sclient's needs, the user of the building requirements and needs.

Refer to lessons and feedback learned from projects previously - Its good to look back to the projects that are similar and then offer areas of identification on improvements that are possible and also relevant to the project like the enhancements of the design, unintended outcomes, or points that are utilised to assist in the project currently.

Enhancements proposed on design brief - Once the gathering of information is done, then the discussion of possible enhancements areas is needed on the design brief existing that is, like :

• Requirements for Future design need
• Strategy of veneration
• The strategy of energy includes the utilisation of energy that is renewable sources
• Requirements on Spatial
• The strategy of control,
• Requirements of comfort
• Regulations and Standards
• The strategy of operation, which include the maintenance of facilities requirements
• The life expectancy of the plant and strategies of replacement.

Design gathered information and key established requirements of the design.
All sites compiled information that is relevant to veneration design and also the air-conditioning strategies, such as :
• Information of the site ( provision utilities, options on fuel)
• Building requirements and use (occupancy)
• Building fabrics and form
• Building location
• Part L requirements of part L
• Building orientation
• Requirements of sustainability
Thermal performance and initial building analysis
• Building analysis - establish thermal in fabric t infiltration and performance.
• Determine intermittent operation whether is considered and likely potential in the requirements of pre-heat
• Approximate estimates in the total building of the heat loss that is (W/m2)

Design calculations of load heating analysis
• Determination of additional loads like process and HWS
• Calculate major heating of the loads
• Load diversity analysis, requirements of pre-heat and determination of overall heating load.

Air-conditioning and ventilation option selection and analysis
• Consideration of alternative sources of heat
• Consider air-conditioning and ventilation options
• Establish renewable sources contributions
• Consider zoning consideration

Calculations of design, space heat load and heat losses
• Heat losses calculation
• Ventilation assessment provision and requirements
• HWS assessment ( services of hot water ) provision
• System choice of selection check that is also appropriate
• Pre-heat determination and requirements

System requirements consideration, on the potential layout
• Consider control and operating strategies.
• Consider the usage of the building and data layout
• Options assessment against client requirements, risk and performance on energy use.
• Select system proposed

Establish data on key design
• Tightness in air
• Fabric parameters in fabric ( Values of U, g )
• Room design sheets of data
• Renewable potentials ( GSHP/CHP)
• Check the parameters of design comply with energy and legislation targets

Equipment sizing and selection
• Consider suitable connections and position of the emitter
• Check layout distribution while also considering regulations and balancing requirements
• Consider circuit connections, layouts, and choices of plumbing - constant or variable volume
• Control requirements development
• Size selection of the emitters and network distribution and distribution losses determination

Plant selection and sizing
• Consideration of any requirement stand
• Number of boilers numbers determination/ requirement of modules
• Select and size of the main plant
• Finalise requirements of controls
• Engineering workshops value
• Check services and layouts that coordinate for ease and clashes of maintenance and commissioning.

The design system of calculations analysis on performance control
• System design review and check system predicted performance
• Check the control selected to achieve the required level in response, control, and efficiency energy, particularly at the load part.
• Check the system analysis part of the performance of the load
• Performance control

Final engineering value and targets of energy assessment
• Finalise heat calculations of load using the modelling dynamic and performance of the system.
• Finalise selection of plant
• Check on the system final and meet the components of client needs and requirements on the performance, reliability, quality, and cost acceptance that meets energy targets and complies with the regulations like the efficiency in seasons.

• Final review design
• The Design brief may also evolve at the project's initial course stage. It is vital to re-evaluate the changes added and noted in the design process.
The below table is an air-conditioning and ventilation process of design based on activity-based development of structure design matrix (DSM) to optimise the air-conditioning and ventilation process design process, Baldock Doug.

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P2 Discussion of the included Information in the design brief of the non-domestic air-conditioning and ventilation system.

The Information is included within a design brief that is functional as indicated below:

Requirements of client

Building requirements and use - Intended business class and type of use type of the building and requirments specific.
For Instance: An office block that has completely different requirements of heating for school, college, equipment, different occupancy requirements, and also services

Occupancy - the occupancy details requirements and type. For instance: Operation hours and occupants density.
Functional deliverables performance: Quantifiable services or goods that are needed. For instance: Occupancy of the thermal comfort, energy security and efficiency requirements.

Requirements for the future - The future flexibility and proofing requirements. For instance, allow additional heating capacity for future accommodation and business expansion.

Strategy of operation - Client's approach review on the design of the building and also operation.Ref: the CIBSE KSO8 Section 3.2-Page 15 graphs based o- page 8) - For instance: Requirements and constraints reviewing a building strategy on energy, sustainability, maintenance and control.

Costs - Project cost budgeting and plan. For instance, is the cost plan reasonable and also practicable for a client's requirement?inclusive of an additional list of comments on the second page.

Information on the site

Building Location: Location of geographical features and the height that is above the level of the sea, conditions exterior like the local wind, climate, pollution and noise. For instance: The external climate differences that will require accounting for inappropriate definition levels of service for the supply of heat - Advised guidance on a Guide of CIBSE A, Section2 -page 46, section 2.
Building orientation - Building surroundings details. For instance: the structures in proximity that we are close to causing shading plus the effects on solar gains that result in building orientation.

Services of the building - Include the utilities positions and provisions. For instance: is there a suitable location for the equipment and plant?

Egress and access to the entire building - access safety into the site and access safe to all locations and activities. For instance: is there safe and suitable access from and to the site?

Regulations and Standards - Requirements of regulatory and statutory :

Various legislation strands design the effect of air-conditioning and ventilation systems. The design aspects of air-conditioning and ventilation performance are covered and maintained by the regulations of building aimed or objected fuel conservation of the power and the regulation and ventilation implementing the directive (6) EU Boiler that sets on the efficiency minimum boilers levels. The heat-producing appliance is also the main regulation governing combustion air supply, chimneys and flues, gas emissions and atmospheric particles. Designers, therefore, are also aware of complying with obligations of construction ( management and design ) Regulations on safety and health under the Work Act. Which is beyond the strict requirements of legal /laws; the client then may need to meet environmental and energy targets that can strongly depend on air-conditioning and ventilation performance.
CIBSE series of knowledge - How to ventilation on design and system of air-conditioning, section 3.2 page 15.

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P3 Produce design data for the air conditioning and ventilation system. The data design used in the proposed system of heating: on fresh air 10/S/L/person- In the Ref: of Part F, In the UK Regulations Building 2010

Comfort criteria recommendation

Twenty-one degrees - In the Ref: Table 1.5 recommended specific comfort criteria on applications, Gide A CIBSE.
0.15(ACH) - In the Ref: of the Table 4.17, air infiltration and ventilation, Guide A CIBSE - Kindly note, it is based on the assumption in type 2 ventilated naturally building 500-4000m². Assumed on a case which is worst of 4 stories of permeability air of 3.0.
The Temperature Outside: that is Winter -2C DB
Overall Wall Area: 873.6 (M2) Overall Glazing Area : 136.5 (m2) Overall Floor Area:1,065(M2)
Height of celling :3.7 (m)
Overall Fabric Loss: 55,325 (w) Overall Ventilation Loss: 4,485 (w) Overall Heat Loss: 59,811(w)
Overall Heat Load: 59,811 (w)

M1.the design evaluation constraints and considerations for the non-domestic design of air conditioning and ventilation system for a specific building.

The main legal requirements for Wales and England are set regarding the 1984 Building Act, which is the conservation of power and fuel, Regulations 17 and 4A. Cool and thermal comfort must be considered ( check on M2 below). The limitation of space requirements is considered when chillers are being designed. Egress and access of building, period of installation - i.e., during the holiday of summer/ hours out. College students' possibility of vulnerabilities - ensure all the workers are checked on DBS.
A few regulations on what you require in note-taking that us included in the safety and Health at (1974)Work Act; in this regard, the Workplace ( safety, health, and welfare) 1992 Regulations and the Safety Gas ( Use and Installation ) 1998 Regulations.
To meet energy in relevant requirements on efficiency in the regulations of the building, when chillers are installed in an existing building, it is always important to make sure any new/ modern chiller meets the listed requirements in the table below for non-domestic service of the building guide of compliance ( edition 2013).

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D1. Analyse safety and health and legislation environment relevant to installation design and operation for the non-domestic air-conditioning and ventilation system.

Regulation 4 General duty

(1) The duty holder shall ensure that an installation at all times possesses such integrity as is reasonably practicable.

(2) The provisions contained in regulations 5 to 10 are without prejudice to the generality of the provision contained in this regulation. 25 Part II of DCR deals with the integrity of the installation. Regulation 4 set to ensure that the level of integrity of the installation is as high as is reasonably practicable at all times, and that risks to people on an installation, arising from matters of integrity, are kept as low as reasonably practicable. 26 This regulation recognises that it may not be reasonable for an installation to be designed to the maximum possible integrity or minimum possible risk, or to retain its integrity and risk levels under all circumstances. 27 Regulation 4 requires duty holders to ensure the integrity of an installation throughout its life cycle. Integrity may be affected during the lifetime of the installation through, for example, processes of degradation and corrosion and it is expected that such degradation is accounted for at the design stage and that the appropriate safeguards are put into effect 28 Other health and safety matters arising from, for example, the specification, use, and configuration of plant, but which do not affect integrity as defined in regulation 2(1), are dealt with in other legislation, including SCR, PFEER and PUWER_ 29 The duty holder for this part of the Regulations is the same as that in SCR (the operator, in the case of a fixed installation, and the owner, in the case of a mobile installation). Therefore, the person who is required to submit the safety case will also be the duty holder under this part of the Regulations. 30 Regulation 4 sets out a general objective. More specific requirements are set out in the other regulations which follow. Compliance with the other regulations will contribute substantially to satisfying the general duty in regulation 4.


  • Q: What information do I need before designing a non-domestic HVAC system?
  • Q: Why is this information important?
  • Q: Are there any resources to help gather this information?
  • Q: What safety and health considerations are important for non-domestic HVAC systems?
  • Q: Where can I find more information on relevant safety and health legislation?

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