Qualification - Pearson BTEC Level 5 Higher National Diploma inEngineering (Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
Unit Name - Utilization of Electrical Power
Unit Number - Unit 53
Unit Level - Level 5
Unit code - 21052K/HEE451
Assignment Title - Analysis of Electrical Power systems & create balanced energy budget
Learning Outcome 1: Examine the demands, sources and construction of electrical power generation and distribution systems.
Learning Outcome 2: Explore the interconnections of power systems and their protection to explain the critical processes and the effects of failure and the importance of electrical safety.
Instant Unit 53 Utilization of Electrical Power - BTEC HND in Engineering (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) Assignment help and Solutions And Unmatched Support- All To Take You To The Top
1. Produce a report on quantitative analysis on the electricity production and consumption in Bahrain, by referring to the government websites given in sources of information.
In the last four decades Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have experienced tremendous economic growth. This economic growth was accompanied by corresponding growth in electricity demand and supply. In the period between 1971 to 2012, the average growth rate of electricity consumption is 6.2 percentage per capita for GCC countries . The primary energy resources in Bahrain are oil, fossil fuels and natural gas. Nowadays energy demand is continuously increasing, if it continue without any fall then, Bahrain will uses its hydrocarbon resources. From the countries recent vision it is revealed that in 2025, the national energy mix target is of 5 percentage of renewable energy and it will increase upto 10% in the year of 2035.To produce the 200 GW solar energy, the solar plan is made with KSA for 2030, this particular project will transform KSA into exporter energy, which exceeds the total generated electricity demand of 66 GW.
The above figure shows that the electricity consumption of Bahrain among various sectors like agricultural, industrial, commercial and residential. From fig 1 it is observed that the residential and commercial sectors having highest percentage. These two sectors having largest consumers. The electricity consumption by the building constructors is about 70% , towards cooling. In the field of industrial and manufacturing sectors in bahrain, the consumption of electricity is increasing rapidly. So that it is predicted like, in 2030 the energy demand will grow from 3.42 GW to 6.5 GW.
2. Being done the quantitative analysis in task1.1, discuss the key aspects that you had examined to create a country's balanced energy budget. Choose a simple electric system (kettle, coffee maker, egg boiler, room heater, electric pump etc.,) as an example to produce the energy balance budget for the same. Map the energy chain system to the country level (Bahrain) by discussing the primary energy forms, conversion mechanisms, transmission, and final energy consumption considering the losses and efficiency factors at various stages.
Bahrain arid climate and lack of arable land prevents it from achieving food independence for its growing population. In Bahrain most of the foods are imported from other countries because of its food demand. About 30% of power is used from the world's total energy consumption by the food sector. In every family lot of electric products are used to prepare the food. Each products consumes some units of electricity while cooking. The units will be varying based on the electric appliances like, egg boiler, water heater, electric pump, and kettle etc. Let consider the kettle, which is used to make heat the water, make tea, soup, cream of wheat, and instant oatmeal etc. A typical kettle will consume 1.5 kwh of energy for one hour usage. Now we assume that, a person uses electric kettle for one hour in order to prepare soup.
Watts used -1500
Cost of unit -0.1
From the observation of above figure it can be say that, if a person uses electric kettle for one hour , it will consume 1500 watts power with 0.1 cost per unit, therefore 50 KWhr of electricity is used per day, and then the cost per day will be 5 and it is 152.100 for per month. It has been observed that, when the person statically uses kettle for hour per day then the usage of cost will be 1825.200 per year.
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3. Apply any of the forecasting methods to predict the future trends of the electricity load demand and supply availability for the annual data given in table.1.
%% clear functions
warning off ;
% % closing figure windows
close all ;
% % for reproducibility
rng default ;
%% load the data
data= [1 1428 2934
2 1525 2346
3 1659 3648
4 2293 3475
5 2845 3557
6 3247 3814
7 3315 3914
8 3418 4003
9 3346 3914
10 2340 3548
11 2263 3168
12 1699 3094
%% extract train data
Load demand data=data(:,1:end);
% % define target for load demand
load_target = [2035.820513
% % define test data for forecasting
Fore data= [2935,3726;3010,3768;3085,3811;3160,3853;3235,3895;3310,3937;3385,3980;3460,4022;3535,4064;3610,4107;3685,4149;3760,4191];
% % initialization of months
Month = 1:12;
month = month';
fore data=[month fore data];
% % defining supply target
Supply target = [3218.730769
% % creating feed forward network model
model = newff (load demand data ', load target ', 10 );
% % training data using model
model = train (model, loaddemand data ', load target ');
% % simulation over testing data
Load out = sim (model, foredata') ';
% % model feed forward network for supply availability
model1 = newff (loaddemand_data', supply_target', 10);
% % training data using model
model1 = train (model1, loaddemand data', supply target');
% % simulation over testing data
supplyout = sim (model1, foredata')';
% % predicted results
Out = [load_target;load_out];
out1 = [supply_target;supplyout];
% % plotting results
legend ('Load demand','Supply availability')
The above figure shows that the comparison graph for load demand and supply availability. The data is loaded for first 12 months and the forecasting is done for 12 months of the next year.
4. Critically evaluate the governmental policies/actions/initiations for managing the Bahrain's energy supply demand balance with justified comments and recommendations.
In world wide the price for electricity and diesel is increasing comparing to the Bahrain. Based on the vision of Bahrain in the year of 2030, the national renewable energy action plan and national energy efficiency plan has been aims to improve the shares of renewable energy from the total energy is 5 % in 2020 and in the year of 2030 it will be 10 %. In the case of demand Bahrain is undergoing the changes and the many revision for it's subsidy, polices ,traffic and laws which will produce the highest demand side management efforts among all the sectors. For accessing it's also requires the investment and involvement of private sector. Initiatives will increase in the form of distributed energy resources like solar system and electric water heaters etc. The cabinet government has been developed 100 MW solar plant project to enhance the efficiency of energy consumption and then smart meter plan also established by the Bahrain government. In 2035, the target of energy consumption will be 6%. If the households avoids to use unwanted electricity products, then the government can develops the energy efficiency. The reduction of overall demand for energy is made by behavioral changes which is brought on by awareness and tariff reform.
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1. Calculate the transmission line losses and efficiency of the two bus three phase power system.
2. Determine the capacitor rating and value to improve the power factor at 11kV bus to Unity power factor.
Simulink and power systems
This course is designed in such a way that ittoo allowsus to simulate power systems in MATLAB/Simulink. This course not only gives a review of the theory of how power systems operate, but also gives several examples on how to run different types of power system studies using MATLAB/Simulink. It has two parts.
MATLAB/Simulink for Power Systems:
First, we will begin by reviewing the libraries available in Simulink to represent generators, transformers, transmission lines, and loads in our models. After that, we will take a look at how we can model these components in Simulink, as well as how we can put them together in a model and how we can take measurements in the model to ensure proper simulation.
Power System Studies in MATLAB/Simulink:
After we've made ourselves familiar with the MATLAB/Simulink environment building a small power system model, we will move on to build a large power system model which includes several generators, transformers, transmission lines, loads, and capacitor banks. We will also model the turbine control systems and excitation control systems for all generators to simulate the realistic dynamic behavior of power systems in real life. After we have built the entire model, we will run several types of components in which different things are included, to simulate the behavior of the system under several conditions. This will give us all the tools we need to build any type of power system and run any power system study using MATLAB/Simulink.
• As mentioned above, in each section, we will go over several models to illustrate how we can design and simulate power systems in MATLAB/Simulink.
• Power system analysis is an important part of power system design. Perform calculations andsimulations to ensure that the electrical system (including system components)isproperlyconfigured to operate as expected,bear the expectedload, and be protected to prevent failure.Information about power system blockdiagrams and current analysis using two busbars and availability Different loads and power factors.The bus in the powersystem is defined as a vertical line used to connectvarious components of thepowersystem. There arefour sizes of bus distribution in the electricity system: voltage size,voltage phase angle, real and imaginary power.
Generation Bus or Voltage control bus
This bar is also known as the P-V bus, and it specifies the voltage magnitude corresponding to the generate voltage and the true or active power P corresponding to its rating. By injecting reactive electricity, the V value is kept steady at a defined amount. The power generation Q and voltage phase angle must be calculated.
The real and imaginary power is pumped into the scopeat this bus, which is also called as the P-Q bus. The value and angle of the voltage must be calculated. The real power P and power Q are defined here, and the voltage that are on the bus may be allowed to vary within a bearable range, i.e., 5%. The voltage phase , in other words, is unimportant for the load.
Assessment main goal:
In our task that is power flow analysis ,in this we have power generating source and have to bus bar with which we have different types of load having different power and different power factor .In our task we have to first calculate transmission line losses in a three phase power system .from losses then we goes to find efficiency of the system .we have learnt how to find all this stuff by formulation and through Simulink we have to understand how to calculate line losses of transmission lines, efficiency. we have generating station then we have bus bar from which our feeders are going and different loads connected to it in a parallel. We learnt how to find capacitor rating and how can we improve power factor.
The objective is to:
• Learn Simulink
• Understanding of bus bar and different load having different power factor
• How power factor can be improved
• How to simulate on MATLAB
The Area-2 load is supplied from 11kV, 50Hz bus by L km long three phase transmission line having resistance of 0.12Ω/phase/km and reactance of 0.36Ω/phase/km respectively from power generating station bus (area-1). The sector wise power demand at 11kV bus of area-2 is given in table.2 as separate data set against each trainee's Identity number.
Length of tr. Line.
( L kM)
Industry Load (KW)
Club house (KW)
Residential complex (KW)
10000, 0.8 P.F
450, 0.8 P.F
1800, 0.86 P.F
3. Calculate the transmission line losses and efficiency for the modified three phase power system placing the designed capacitor to improve power factor and compare the results with task2.1. There by list the advantages of power factor improvement.
Calculations:To increase power factor, we created a capacitor that can be used to boost the power factor of an entire device or flow analysis. We constructed the capacitor so that the power factor reaches unity; if the power factor reaches unity, there is no reactive power dissipated.
List the advantages of power factor improvement:
1. Avoid Power Factor Penalties
For most manufacturing plants, the power factor is inherently low due to induction motors.For a lower power factor, certain electric utility utilities charge a penalty (usually below 0.80 or 0.85).You will exclude the power factor charge from your bill by including power factor adjustment.
2. Minimize demand charges
The percentage of the calculated KVA would be considerably greater than the KW demand if the power factor is low. As a result, improving the power factor by power factor adjustment would decrease the demand charge, lowering the energy bill.
3. Voltage loss minimized
When there is low power factor then current is higher, due to this voltage get reduced as current increased .but we can minimized voltage loss by keeping our p.f higher.
4. Keeping the losses low
Keep the losses in the transmission line must be low.
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5. If the club house at area-2 is required to be powered from a distribution generation station, explore the key aspects of the three phase system shown in figure.1 using distributed energy generation, nature of loads and the different protection schemes adopted.
It will increase the transmission losses. For that we have to increase the availability of reactive power by installing capacitor banks along transmission lines.
Balancing current along three-phase loops is one of the simplest ways to reduce delivery system losses.So, we can use loads that can balance the all the three phases. Or also the loads that reduces the reactive power.
- overvoltage protection
- overcurrent scheme (surge current protection)
- Distance protection
- Earth Fault protection
6. List the possible power quality issues that could be encountered in the power system shown in figure.1. Critically evaluate at least two technologies used to improve power quality and illustrate the advantages of application of such methods through Matlab simulations or otherwise(high technical English language).
Voltage profile, Frequency profile, Harmonics containment, and power supply stability make up power quality. The degree to which the power supply reaches the perfect case of continuous, uninterrupted, zero distortion, and disturbance-free supply is referred to as power quality.
The following are examples of power quality issues:
• Voltage sag (or dip)
• Very brief interruptions
• Long interruption
• Voltage pulse
• Voltage swells
• Harmonic interference
CAUSES QUALITY OF POOR POWER
• Changes in the amplitude and frequency of the voltage.
• The extent of the variation can be caused by a sudden increase or decrease in load, outages, repeated shifting loading patterns in rolling mills, power electronic converters, inverters, and lightning, among other things.
• Frequency variations may trigger out-of-system dynamics or harmonic injection.
TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS
The following are the two major types of compensation methods: • Passive techniques • Active techniques
The following instruments are used in passive techniques.
• L-C Passive Shunt Filters
• Capacitors for Power Factor Correction
Active techniques employ the following devices.