Qualification - BTEC Higher National Diploma (HND) in Healthcare Practice (Healthcare Management)

Unit Name - Anatomy and Physiology for Health and Ill Health

Unit Number - Unit 9

Unit Level - Level 4

Unit Code - R/616/1644

Unit Credit - 15

Assignment Title - Anatomy and Physiology for Health and Ill Health

Learning Outcome 1: Explain the role of research for evidence-based practice in health and social care

Learning Outcome 2: Conduct a review of key literature relating to a research topic towards improvements in care practice

Learning Outcome 3: Develop a project proposal using evidence-based practice

Learning Outcome 4: Examine the value of the literature review process in influencing positive change in health, care or support service provision.

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Studying the human body's structure can explain human anatomy. The anatomy studied can be seen as the cornerstone for effective medical skills, including medicine. Health professionals will evaluate the condition of a health user with a proper insight into the structure of the human body. This examination examines the significance of the organ system in a healthy human body and the human cells form a vital component of human anatomy. A detailed analysis of the function of the human cell.
the major body

Organization of the Body
Cellular Function in the Human Body
The building blocks of cells are living organisms. There is an astonishing number of cells when it comes to the human body. The body creation, the consumption of nutrients and nutrient-changing energy and specialized functions are fundamental activities for the human cell. It is possible to generate and reproduce cells comprised of hereditary materials.
The cells are composed and replicable of the hereditary ingredients.

Cytoplasm Function: The cytoplasm of the human body contains compounds that aid in metabolism, such as waste breakdown enzymes.
The cells give structure and support, like to the construction of a classroom, for numerous tasks in the human body. Every organism consists of cells, and certain cells, such as collenchyma sclerenchyma, sustain every species structurally. The mitosis procedures utilized by the simple organism for reproduction and development of cells, which are splintered into two cells that lead to mitosis as well.
Cells import nutrients to make it possible to use a variety of chemicals in passive and active transport. These methods cause a cell to remove garbage. They also provide energy, promote metabolism, aid to replicate and increase.
In exchanging gas and water molecules within the body, cells tend to randomly mix up achieving a dynamic equilibrium of molecules. The cell membrane undergoes diffusion based on the degree of water molecules. The red blood cells in the body transport oxygen directly to capillaries and carbondioxide is diffused from the cells directly to the bloodstream.

An organ system is a collection of bodies working for one or more actions in the human body together with a biological system. The system comprises of various kinds of tissue, each of which has a separate physiological function. Eleven organ systems in a healthy human body are needed for skeletal underpinnings. All systems are composed of circulatory, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, intega-tional, musculoskeletal, pneumatic, and neurological systems (Shuler2017). Non-organism systems like the immune system also exist in the human body. This system prevents human bodily infections. But it is organ-free. This system.
Mitochondria plays a part in the transformation of cellular energy from food.

The core function provides instructions on how to grow, divide, mature and color.

The plasma membrane separates the cell and permits materials to enter and leave the cell. Function of plasma diaphragm:
The purpose of ribosomes is protein synthesis.
As indicated in the following diagram, the body comprises arrangements that work together: Tissue is composed of cells, organ tissue and organ systems.

Body cells use osmosis to remove their body waste. Waste substances from the body cells are distracted (Lieu, Gutierrez, and Shaffer 2018). The cells use an approach to make a transient transformation and not to reverse the waste material. Blood cells that are not disinfected or blood transferred into cells also have the task of converting carbon dioxide gas into osmosis and diffusion into a bicarbonate. Osmosis and diffusion are also used to eliminate waste from the bodily cells. For this approach, the expression is sweating.

Structure and function of several human systems

Name of the organ System



Circulatory System

It includes the heart in conjunction with blood vessels such as arteries, veins, or capillaries. (Parish and other countries)

The blood transfer is carried out throughout the human body. This mechanism Blood is pumped between heat and fibers and the cells of the organism. (2017) (Hur& coll.

The respiratory system

The nose, trachea, and bronchioles form part of the breathing system. Alveolar Sacs of Lung and Alveoli.

This system enables lengthy air to spread oxygen to the tissues of the blood and body.

The skeletal system

Bones, related cartilage, and joints are included in the skeletal system.

The system is developed for the strength, support and design of the body, body protection, cell creation and leverage (Hur et al. 2017)

Muscular system

The muscle system is made up of the muscles of the heart, bowel, and smooth muscles.

The muscle's function is to provide motor energy for the body's actions.

Nervous system

Both brain and nerve endings form the nervous system.

It is the neurological system that monitors and coordinates the body's processes.

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system is made up of lymph veins, lymph structures peripheral to the organ, core lymphatic tissue, and lymphocyte structures.

The lymphatic system performs a variety of interconnected activities (Pugazhendhi et al. 2018). The method described above removes interstitial fluid directly from tissues of the body. It also carries fatty acids like Chyle from digestive system. Further, this process promotes transporting of white blood cells to and from lymph nodes.

Endocrine system

Endocrine systems include hypophysis glands, thyroid glands, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, and testes, ovaries, and liver. Health care systems There are multiple endocrine glands in the system.

The endocrine glands mentioned below are designed to govern the body's chemical coordinating processes.

Digestive system

The digestive system consists of the primary canal, liver, and pancreas. Tongue, teeth, and communication

The absorption of food is the goal of this mechanism.

Urinary System

The urinary system is made up of ureters, kidneys, the urine bladder, and the urethra.

This system controls the interior body, causing urine to be excreted.

Reproductive system

Male and Uterus, Penis & Ovaries, Vulva and Labia & Clitoris (Female)

The function of the fertilization of sperm and semen by men in this system. In women, the reproduction of the eggs and the growth of the fetuses are a result of (Anwar et al. 2019)

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The impact of Illness body

To preserve an individual's life and health, the body's systems must work in concert. Even if each biological system serves a different purpose, they all must collaborate. The skeletal and muscular systems collaborate to allow the human body to move correctly. The heart's circulatory system pumps the blood via the complicated system of the blood vessel. The blood acquires nutrients and absorbs them when circulating with the aid of the digestive system. Oxygen is also inhaled from the blood through the lungs. The blood circulation system distributes oxygen and nutrients to the other cells and collects and transfers waste from the cells to the kidneys and lungs (Kim et al., 2019). The urinary system includes the kidneys that collect and remove waste from the human body. Oxygen is distributed through the circulatory system from the respiratory system whilst the cardiac muscles are unable to operate without oxygen (El-Sharkawy et al. 2019). Another example is the way that the skull and spine bones protect an individual's nervous system while the brain controls the position of the bone via controlling the muscles. The circulatory system ensures a consistent flow of the blood, which is rich in oxygen, while the brain manages the heart and blood pressure.

So, it is easy to see how even a system failure could lead to a general decline in health. The deterioration of the circulatory system, for example, will lead to the degeneration of digestive and excretive systems. Not only is a human body's excretion system faulty, but it can also have major unfavorable health implications. The system for skeleton removing wastes created by bone cells is dependent on the excretion system. On the other hand, the skeleton system is a structure designed to safeguard bubble and other organ excretion systems (Sink et al. 2018).

For example, with diabetes, a significant quantity of blood glucose can help develop fatty deposits on the walls of your blood vessels. It can result in a decline in blood circulation over time and an increase in atherosclerosis or blood vessel hardness. The brain, heart of the organ systems is only a small number of which could be damaged by this intricacy, kidney, eye, neurology, skin, and soft tissue.

If left untreated, it can lead to a stroke, heart attack, insufficiency, blindness, or amputate

Maintenance of homeostasis

In human bodies, homeostatic is described as a condition of equilibrium, harmony, and equilibrium.
A good example of homeostasis is the environmental temperature of the human body. A healthy individual is about 98.6°C body temperature (37 degrees Celsius). Humans can raise or lower the temperature of internal animals like warm blooded animals. External influences, such climate and seasonal temperature, limit body temperature swings. This is a case in point how homeostasis is preserved.

The body can directly utilize glucose as the basic type of sugar. To keep a person stable, the body needs an adequate supply of glucose. The pancreas activates the insulin enzyme when blood glucose is too high. If blood glucose is too low, it turns back to the form of glucose. Calcium should be maintained healthy in the blood. A homeostasis example is that the human body controls blood glucose. When hormone levels fall, the parathyroid gland releases hormones. When the level of calcium in the blood is too high, the thyroid helps to maintain calcium in the bones and lower blood calcium.

When it comes to exchange of oxygen to carbon dioxide, external respiration occurs in the body. It exchanges gas and allows a bulk flow directly from lungs to blood by means of diffusion and this is the case with oxygen as well as carbondioxide. Circulatory and respiratory systems play in support of each other. For instance, they work in transporting oxygen as well as blood throughout the body. These systems also play critical roles in the exchange of gases.

Homeostasis Disease

The energy from homeostasis is a well-controlled, synchronized feed and energy process. In the last several years, energy metabolism in humans has gained a lot of interest due to variations resulting from variables such as obesity and diabetes. On the other hand, hypothalamus takes care of regulating internal body temperature and it is a component of the brain that ensures that the body falls in the ideal temperature of 37 degree Celsius.
Various bodies govern homeostatic energy tightly, including:
Type 1 Diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease of pancreatic cell destruction. To maintain an energy balance when cells die, the body cannot create enough insulin. In children and young individuals, type 1 diabetes is the most frequent. The presence of type 2 diabetes in the body is immune to the blood glucose that blocks the cells from insulin. Diabetes type 1 happens. In adults, types of 2 diabetes are more common.

The role of the bodily system in energy production
The three bio-systems - circulatory, respiratory, and digestive - work together to give the body with a consistent supply of power. The cardiovascular system with its heart and blood veins pumps the blood throughout the body. To the left portion, the blood that is rich in oxygen is directly pumped to lungs through the circulatory division of the body (Gibbons et al. 2017). This approach also keeps the respiratory system up and strengthens the cardiovascular system.

The air system is the lungs. Carbs, oxygen, and the blood vessels are transferred to the lungs in the human body's nose (Reeves and McCausland2018). The lungs are formed by bronchi, bronchi, and alveoli. In the inhaled air, alveoli absorb oxygen. The cleaned blood flows into the heart from the blood vessels. The blood which returns to the lung is carbon dioxide. Exhalation permits the removal of the human body of carbon dioxide.

This mechanism is the responsibility of the digestive system for food digestion and absorption. Digestion is called the dividing process of food into molecules which the boy would later observe. The digestive system interacts closely with the circulatory system to provide the human body with absorbed nutrients. The circulatory system carries molecules from the digestive velocity of the endocrine system. The failure to synchronize the digestive system with the circulation typically leads to malnutrition.

The food gets broken down into glucose. When a person eats a food, carbohydrates associated with the food item are digestion and enzymes take care of this process. Glycogen and starch are further broken down by maltase and amylase enzymes to form glucose. Sucrose is broken down by sucrase while lactose is broken by lactase. Adenosine triphosphate is identified as a molecule that carries energy. This molecule takes the responsibility of breaking down molecules in food and then converting them into energy.

A person with not just malnutrition, but also various conditions that are not correctly associated with his digestive system. If an individual's circulatory system does not function effectively, nutrients in the digestive system throughout the entire body are insufficient to result in a deficiency of nutrients (Forsell 2018). An individual who has a bad digestive system, on the other hand, will have a similar problem. This is because if the food is not digested, the vital nutrients will not be absorbed. The body has a greater chance of suffering a range of ailments while malnourished. Digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems are some of those most common illnesses due to an insufficient coordinated approach in Kwashorkor, Goiter, BeriBeri and Scorvy.

This second section of the project examines the effects of physiological measurement in the body on poor health and interprets the physiological measurement of Mr. Robertson and provides a detailed plan for care to reduce patients' risk together with a person-centered health plan for Mr. Robertson

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Part Two

Measuring the physiology


Normal Range

The patient's measurement


Blood pressure

The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg for adults.

169/100 mmHg right arm




Having a deficient nervous system function, Mr. Robertson has high blood pressure and hypertension.

Pulse rate

For an adult male, the pulse rate ranges from 60 to 100 bpm.

Pulserate 79bpm(radial),2+ regular rhythm

Patient pulse rate is normal but there are times whenTachycardia is present on the +2 radial and Mr. Robertson. The value seems to fluctuate confirming tachycardia at times.Physiology also provides a record for any organ, including the organ of the patient, its consistency, size, location, sensitivity, and texture.


The body temperature for humans is 37.5 °C.

The temperature of Mr. Robertson is 37.2°C.

Mr. Robertson temperature is within the normal range of a male adult

Flaky skin without shower or clothing

The skin must not be flaccid but moisturized for months in a healthy human body.

Skin flaccid and clothing change or without bathing.

Since Mr. Robertson has flaky skin, his skin is dry, it shows he is dehydrated

Body mass

An adult should have normal BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2.

18 Kg/m

The patient's body weight suggests a low weight of the body.

1.1.1. Interpretation of overall physiological measurement

Mr. Robertson seems to be in poor health based on general results. In these circumstances, early warning systems have a primary function in identifying and responding to individuals whose health is harmed. The NEWS determines the seriousness of the condition among healthcare users and alerts healthcare practitioners. The scoring system of NEWS is used for this research.

Source - The Center for Evidence-Based Medicine
The NEWS can be applied early on in clinical deterioration and in all hospitalized patients the probable need for higher-level care. The blood pressure was 169/100 mmHg right-hand. There is both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the human body. The systematic blood pressure in the arteries increases while the heart beats. Diastolic pressure is the pressure between the heart's beats that builds up in the arteries. If both arteries are healthy and dilatated, blood flows easier. In the adult population, normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Therefore, Mr. Robertson has high blood pressure and hypertension. This can have a likely impact on the nervous system of Mr. Robertson. This disability is a result. The nervous system is supportive and limits the blood pressure and raises the heart rate (Konrad et al. 2017). High blood pressure causes salt consumption and not enough fruit or vegetables, lack of training, insufficient sleep, or sleep and much more of the family history of blood pressure. Blood pressure is a major problem. Hypertension will have a modest effect if it is kept at a low level. Failing to intervene correctly, on the other hand, might lead to life-threats such heartbeat, breath trouble, chest pain, sometimes confusion and even blood in the urine. When the blood pressure of a patient is greater than normal, a high salt diet must be shut down and medicines prescribed by a doctor should be prescribed.

Mr. Robertson's pulse rate per minute is 79 beats. Because for an adult man the average pulse rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute, the pulse rate looks reasonable. Palpations involving the patient's body are also carried out to determine consistency, dimensions, position, pain, and texture via physiological examination. No sensitive pulse is indicated by 0; 4+ represents the pulse of the boundary of 0 to 4+. Mr. Robertson's pulse is less than normal as demonstrated by a score of 2+. This is again said as per the scoring system of NEWS tool that is mentioned above.Higher-palpation tachycardia than typical implies difficulties with the heart, overactive thyroid, and fear (El-Sharkawy et al. 2019).

To have a pleasant view of the body temperature that maintains or balances the body's heat, the physical temperature is monitored. If the adult's typical body temperature is 37.5°C, the tympanical temperature is expected to be 0.3°C above the buccal temperature (Konrad et al. 2017). Reading the temperature of Mr. Robertson at 37.2° c suggests this is within the normal range. Its BMI is 18 kg/m2, so that its weight is low. Studies showed that adult normal BMI should be between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. The weight of the patient therefore shows that he is weightless.

In a healthy human body, normal skin should not be flaky but moist. Mr. Robertson skin is flaky, so he is dehydrated, and his clothes looks dirty and unchanged as well as without shower Furthermore, this physiological assessment shows that the circulatory blood flow of a patient involves potentially dangerous waste product's (heng et al. 2018). According to researchers there are some of the key signs associated with dehydration besides flaky skin, dry skin, dry mouth, constipation, and lightheadedness. Because of its flaky skin, Mr. Robertson is clearly dehydrated. Extreme dehydration can, according to the researchers, lead to luminosity or vertigo, poor blood pressure, rapid heart rate, high fever, and poor skin elasticity, leading to Flaky skin in this situation, the physician's main actions include increasing the fluid intake of the patient. Intravenous fluids are used to rehydrate the body in a variety of situations in patients that cannot consume fluids orally. A variety of intravenous fluids can be used to treat dehydration. Sodium and chorine normal saline water is given to fill up lost fluids and prevent electrolytic imbalances in the body. Dextrose and water solution can also be treated for dehydration.

Plan care interventions
Physiological measures and universal malnutrition testing equipment evaluating human body weight and height. To prevent hypertension and dehydration Mr. Robertson BP is utilized with 169/100 mmHg Right Arm and BMI with less than 18,5 kg. Mr. Robertson was not mentioned in the case study, but the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) was employed because its BMI 2 indicates it is very prone to dehydration and malnutrition. The main source of Robertson's health concerns is depression due to his wife's death and poor eating. The following risk assessment technique was carried out to avoid future injury to a patient who was not aware.

2.2.1. Risk Assessment


Likelihood score (1=low to 5=high)

Impact score (1=low to 5=high)

Risk score

















Care plan







To achieve the ideal score of BMI in 1 year

Snacking nutritious foods is a strategy to obtain additional nutrients and fruits and vegetables from eating (Mediterranean). Promote Mr. Robertson to choose the best cuisine.

 Mr. Robertson will be referred by GP to a nutritionist to assess and establish nutrition programmed to enhance Mr. Robertson's diet and eating practices.


2.2.2 Person-centered care



Nursing intervention




Improving Mr. Robertson BP from 169//100 mmHg to 120/80 mmHg's blood pressure.

First, Mr. Robertson's food consumption should be encouraged. The absence of nutrition leads to further hypertension rises.


Please reduce your diet's amount of salt carefully. The diet of Mr.

 Robertson should be complementary to Mediterranean diet such as fruit and vegetable and less salt in his diet

Need to inform GP about Prinivil that can reduce its blood volume.



Dehydration(This was evident with his other symptoms like malnutrition and hypertension that also indicates low values of fluid consumption)

Improve the patient body's fluid level to eliminate the dehydration symptoms such as dark colored skin and urine.

1. The caregiver shall provide a minimum of 200 to 250 ml of soup or juice every four hours.


2.Popsicles between meals are to be provided.


The treatment provider takes at least three liters of liquid each day.

Talk to a pharmacist who can prescribe Mr.Robertson oral rehydration bags.



Create and support Mr. Robinson from the depression phase.

he should be encouraged to share his feelings with both the health care provider and the family members of Mr. Robertson. You can do this by starting a talking to Mr.Robertson to have shower and change his cloths or for him to have a Care giverto help him with personal care


The families of the sick will be instructed to avoid criticizing, stinging, or ignoring the sufferer.



He should enjoy family travels and other holidays to urge him to participate in society


Caregiver, friends, and family



There is likelihood for the patient to avoid eating a specific food or miss the intake of tablet. In that case, I'd give him time to understand the importance and educate potential consequences. I will also ask him other formats by which the same food can be consumed by him so that he instantly eats it. Regular hygiene education with simple protocols will help in improving his overall lifestyle.

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Evaluation of the Personal care plan

The established care plan focuses primarily on measures and measures to ensure that caregivers, relatives, and friends recover their own health. The three health problems Mr. Robertson is concerned with and the actions to be dealt with are some of the primary good practices in the health plan. The intended health outcome was also shown in the treatment plan at the conclusion of a specified term. This provides medical practitioners with access to developments in patents. However, a thorough examination is vital for development in all three circumstances, including the function of the caregiver and the family.

As stated in the paragraph above, the organ system of the human body is a collection of bodies that work as a biological system. Every healthcare provider needs a deep understanding of the organ system. Most emotional and physical issues affect the health of Mr. Robertson. Even with compliance with the above-mentioned health plan, effective medicine can tackle your health issues shortly.







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Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria




LO1 Explain the role of research for evidence-based practice in health and social care

D1 Evaluate the skills required to conduct ethical research to positively influence practice and provision in health, care and support services

P1 Describe the purpose and process of conducting research in enabling evidence-based practice in health and social care

P2 Explain the skills and qualities needed to conduct a literature review in health and social care

M1 Analyse own current skills and knowledge in being able to conduct a literature review in health and social care towards evidence-based practice

LO2 Conduct a review of key literature relating to a research topic towards improvements in care practice

LO2 and LO3

P3 Conduct a literature review using a range of sources relating to the research topic

P4 Explain results of literature search that summarises current knowledge about research topic

M2 Evaluate the reliability and validity of own literature review

D2 Critically assess the viability of own project proposal in relation to the literature review conducted

LO3 Develop a project proposal using evidence-based practice

P5 Explain the benefits of evidence-based practice as a method in carrying out research

M3 Justify rationale for proposed research study based on research topic

P6 Produce a project proposal for a proposed study based on research topic

LO4 Examine the value of the literature review process in influencing positive change in health and social care practice

D3 Evaluate own journey towards contributing to innovation and improvement in evidence-based health, care or support practice and service delivery

P7 Describe different ways in which the literature review influences evidence- based health and social care practice

P8 Explain how recent research has had a positive impact on current practice to improve service delivery

M4 Analyse how the personal research process has an impact on own learning and practice in the workplace

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