Course - Higher National Diploma in Engineering


Unit 45 Industrial Systems in Higher National Engineering dives into the world of electronically controlled industrial processes. The focus is on empowering engineers to choose and implement the right control systems for various industries. Students gain expertise in areas like monitoring and controlling variables such as pressure, temperature, and motor speed. Through analyzing system stability and applying control theory, they ensure efficient and optimized industrial operations. This unit equips future engineers with the skills to integrate electrical and electronic engineering principles into practical industrial applications.

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Unit 45 Industrial Systems

LO1 Describe the main elements of an electronically controlled industrial system

Question: Provide a description of the main elements involved in this electronically controlled industrial system

Set Point
The set point/control value is defined and set either manually and automatically by the operator. If the operators finds and updates the set point automatically, he or she does it using an automated system.
In This system,
Set Point=Hi(S)

Controlled Variable
The control system tries to keep this variable at the set point value. The set point might be fixed or adjustable.
In This system,
Set Point=H0(S)

Measurement Device
The "feedback signal" refers to the quantity of the output being measured, as well as the sort of control system that employs feedback signals to both regulate and monitor the output.
In This system,
Measuring device set to H0(S).

Dead Band
The Result The amount added or removed from the Control Output to compensate for a "deadband" in the system is referred to as deadband. Dead band occurs when valves with overlapping spools and some drives do not react to tiny variations in output. Only closed-loop control allows for deadband correction. A deadband is a range of input values in the domain of a transfer function in a control or signal processing system where the output is zero.It is also known as a neutral or dead zone

In This system,
Can calculate dead band between Hi(S) and H0(S).

A controller used in a closed network is to evaluate outputs of systems to the needed state and transform the error into a control action which is meant to decrease the mistake and return theoutputs of system to the desired behavior.
In This system controller is,

Data passes from the process to the sensors to the transmitters towards the controller towards the actuator and again to the operation in a closed-loop control scheme.
In This system,
Actuator process done through the sensor

Manufacturing Process
A closed loop control network is a collection of electrical or mechanical devices thatadjust a production variable to a predetermined condition or set positionwithout human interference. It is in contrast to open loop control systems, which require manual input.
In this system manufacturing process done by power amplifier, motor and load and gears.

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Question: Analysing the desired characteristics of the system and determine the following, justifying reasons for their selection


Motor type= Induction motor

The cost of maintaining a three-phase induction motor is lower, and unlike a DC or synchronous motor, it does not require brushes, rollers, or slip rings. Electronic controllers with variable frequency drives are employed in the most recent lift designs.
Minimum Power Rating=10kW

Because this motor would be used to lift loads to heights ranging from 5 metres to 35 metres and the loads would vary from 100kg force to 1000kg force.

Hoist Mechanism
A hoist is indeed a device that lowers or lifts a cargo using a chain or rope wrapped around a drum or lift-wheel. An elevator is the most common type, with a hoist mechanism which lowers and raises the car. A lifting hook is used by most hoists to connect to their cargoes.

Steel-wire ropes are among the components in conveyor and hoisting technologies that are subjected to the largest weights. The load is dispersed among a large number of individual lines, resulting in flawless high-speed operation and great operational security. An effective link between intrinsic weight and splitting strength, as well as economic advantages and movement, are among the attributes. Cable ropes are not vulnerable to any significant loss of strength, with the exception of corrosion caused by ambient conditions and use during operation. Furthermore, they are straightforward to maintain and track in terms of their operating state.

Relay Controller
The speed, position, and door functioning of an elevator or banks of lifts were controlled by relay logic controllers of increasing sophistication in these electromechanical machines. A "selector" is a device found in elevators using relay logic controls.

Using magnetic strip sensors can measure the load heights.
For optimal safety, all hydraulic crane components must function together. In addition to the weight assessment,
Very accurate
Less errors
The use of sensor technologies to measure the lifting weight helps to assure the mission's stability.


H_0 (s)=[[K_pot H_0 (s)-K]_pot H_i (s) ][K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g]

[K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot-1] H_0 (s)=[K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot ] H_i (s)

(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=(K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot)/(K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot-1)

So the transfer function of the system is,
(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=(K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot)/(K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot-1)

Assign values,

(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=(K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot)/(K*K_1/(S+a)*K_m/S(S+a_m ) *K_g*K_pot-1)


(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=(1*100/(S+100)*2.083/S(S+1.71) *0.1*0.318)/(1*100/(S+100)*2.083/S(S+1.71) *0.1*0.318-1)

(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=6.62394/(6.62394-S(S+100)(S+1.71))

(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=(-6.62394)/(s^3+101.71s^2+171s-6.62394)

According to transfer function there are no zeros,
Calculating poles,

All poles are in real axis so this system is stable.

If K=5,

Transfer function,
(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=(5*100/(S+100)*2.083/S(S+1.71) *0.1*0.318)/(5*100/(S+100)*2.083/S(S+1.71) *0.1*0.318-1)

(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=33.1197/(33.1197-S(S+100)(S+1.71))

(H_0 (s))/(H_i (s) )=(-33.1197)/(s^3+101.71s^2+171s-33.1197)
According to transfer function there are no zeros,
Calculating poles,

All poles are in real axis so this system is stable. Because of that the value of "K" was changed to 5 would the system not become unstable.

Steady state value = lims→0?[(-6.62394)/(s^3+101.71s^2+171s-6.62394)*20s]

= lims→0?(-6.62394)/(s^3+101.71s^2+171s-6.62394)*20s

= 0

Steady state error = lims→0 1/s.?[H_0 (s)]

= lims→0 1/s.[(-6.62394)/(s^3+101.71s^2+171s-6.62394)*H_i (s)]

Steady state error of above system =
lims→0 1/s. [(-6.62394)/(s^3+101.71s^2+171s-6.62394)*H_i (s)]

= lims→0 1/s.?[(-6.62394)/(s3+101.71s2+171s-6.62394)]*20s


By changing hi (t) =u (t), we can adjust the steady state error of the system is zero.

FAQ: Main Elements of Electronically Controlled Industrial Systems

  • Q: What are electronically controlled industrial systems?
  • Q: What are the main elements of these systems?
  • Q: How do these elements work together?
  • Q: What are some benefits of electronically controlled industrial systems?
  • Q: Are there any additional elements?

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