Qualification - Level 4 and Level 5 Higher National Diploma in Construction
Unit Name - Science and Materials
Unit Reference Number - N5E03
Unit Level - Level 4
Assignment Title - Science and Materials
Learning Outcome 1: Review health and safety regulations and legislation associated with the storage, handling and use of materials on a construction site.
Learning Outcome 2: Discuss the environmental and sustainability factors which impact on and influence the material choices for a construction project
Learning Outcome 3: Present material choices for a given building using performance properties, experimental data, sustainability and environmental consideration
Learning Outcome 4: Evaluate the performance of a given building in respect of its human comfort requirements.
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You have recently been employed as a civil engineering technician by a local contractor. The company has recently appointed a new Managing Director. The MD is keen to improve the performance of the structures the company are designing and building and asked to carry out an investigation of the factors which influence human comfort and the thermal performance of the buildings.
The submission comprises two related items:
Section 1 - Discuss the basic factors that affect human comfort and identify materials within in a building which can assist with achieving comfortable conditions for the inhabitants of the building.
Section 2 - Human Comfort Calculations
Human comfort factors are essential in buildings in which we occupy, therefore calculate the following to either establish values or achieve compliance;
Health and safety regulations and legislation associated with the storage, handling and use of materials on a construction site
Regulations associated with the storage, handling and use of materials on site
According to the HASAWA all workers should manage, plan, and monitor their work to carry out it safely and without dangers to the health. the proficient and safe storage of merchandises depends on the cooperation and communication among all stakeholders including customers, contractors, suppliers and traders (HSE 2022).
Storage arrangements should be discussed in all projects and approved by the client and the contractors. Major project should have efficient material storage systems which should be include in the construction phase plan.
Every project no matter it is big small should follow the CDM the construction-specific regulations.
Health & Safety Regulations
Workplace requires first aid but where the construction is higher risk, first aid need are higher too.
Health and Safety Regulations
First aid is necessary with the construction high risk
PPE is vital in all workplaces; it is the last line of protection against danger. It is a legal requirement under these laws.
Code of Practice for Manual Management
Construction is the site where you have to follow the rules and regulation in manual handling too (Haspod 2022).
Storage of material
• Selected storage locations the waste produced inside the building, the constructors need to provide wheeled bins or chutes for the safety of the building and the storage of the waste material.
• Separated pedestrian walkways for the workers should be kept clean and free of obstructions that may cause injury to the workers if the surface is slippery
• Flammable substances stored away from other substances it is necessary to make sure that all flammable waste materials are cleared away regularly to decrease the risks of fire.
• If equipment is to be stored on a high level, it is necessary to place protective equipment so that it does not cause any fall to the workers.
Lifting and Manual handling
If the workers are no carrying out the manual handling properly it is one of the most communal causes of occupational injuries.
Lifting the heavy objects can cause muscle and bone illnesses due to Poor posture.
The Manual handling 1992 act provides the complete guidance on how to avoid and decrease the risk of injury as a result of personal organization (Hse 2022).
Risk assessments and method statements (RAMS)
The overall determination of RAMS is to remove or decrease and control the risks which occurs during construction work. Although a exact procedure for conducting a official risk assessment is not a obligation of CDM Regulation. But the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations need that occupational hazards be accurately regulated.
It involves to look at the things that might cause injury to people and then make decision to stop that injury. It is also the common requirement for construction site to produce RAMS if they wish to make major projects (The HS Dept 2022).
Risk assessment can be a simple procedure and does not require any complicated techniques and can be performed by anyone.
This method is commonly discussed to as qualitative risk assessment. Alternatively if the company is working with chemicals or any other dangerous things methods .
Quantitative risk assessments referred to as a arithmetical measure of the likelihood that damage will occur as a result of certain occurrences even the Statement of Procedure helps to manage any planned activity and ensure that necessary protective measures are communicated to all involved.
A person directing a business must manage risks associated with construction work. In order to manage risk under the WHS Regulations, a duty holder must: ?
recognize practically expected hazards that could give rise risk to the workers
eradicate the risk, it is not sensibly possible to eradicate the risk, then minimize the risk so far as is sensibly possible.
To ensure the control measure remains operative maintain it.
review the measures and if it is essential make changes in the control measures and maintain them and then provide the work environment that has no risks to health and safety
Health and safety rules apply to all industries. The legislation that applies is The Construction (Design & Management) Regulations (Haspod 2022).
The main CDM rules is to certify that health and safety problems are effectively considered during the project construction, and decreasing the risk of injury to those who have to use, build and maintain buildings.
They are based on a European order to manage the causes of accidents. Therefore constructors now have to measure the risks, so that the client and builders are aware of the associated risks.
The safety plan includes planning and dumping streams generated during construction will be managed in a timely and efficient manner and is responsible for collecting and disposing of certain local waste.
• Policy or objectives
• List of people who are responsible
• Emergency contact information
• An explanation of the land
• Explanation of the possibility of the project
• Identification of the risk (BigRentz 2022).
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The benefits of environmental product declarations and certification
Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM) is the first method of environmental assessment and measuring systems to assess sustainability of the structure. It is uses to recognize the performance measurements, set against standardized measurements, to study life cycle impact of the material and assess structural design, construction and use. It is also used to represent various range conditions from the essentials and strengths to the environment. It also includes features related to the use of energy and water, the internal environment, pollution, waste, and management processes (Basnet2012).
• Recognition of the material for properties that have a minor impact on the environment
• Sureness that a well-tested practice is combined into the structure
• Inspiration to discover new solutions that decrease environmental impact
• A plan to help decrease the cost of operation, improve workplaces and accommodation
• Progressive level of business and organizational environmental goals
Without a clear measurement system, it is difficult to justify although claims about the natural functioning of building materials are easy to make. It is important to measure the impact of building materials not only during construction but also during production or construction throughout its life. This includes its use, extraction, processing, care and final disposal. It is important to inspect building materials in order to determine their global and local impact on the land, water and air and the environment.
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Section 2: Investigate construction material performance properties, behaviour and consider their use.
d. Material testing
1. Highlight the mechanism, rationale and the British Standard guidance for the following ‘fresh' concrete tests;
Concrete is different from other materials of the building because it needs different levels of processing between its arrival and assignment, gathering, finishing and management. Slump testing is quick and easy to find out the concrete's quality prior to placement depends on the suggested degradation rates. It is very inexpensive because this process taken locally and does not need the expensive testing machine (Neyestani 2011).
It is used to determines the moisture of the concrete in the average range. It is used to check the percentage of water in concrete that it does not diverge pointedly from the recommended value.
Performance and Treatment Testing
The important elements in the construction and treatment of examples are:
Cube shapes - Metal shapes are provided with different sets of matching pieces as well as bases and sides from different shapes never combine.
Cooling temperature 22 to 25ºC.
It is vital to bring thecubes correctly. The ideal way is to attach the label of paper to the surface of a cube. When the cube is released the details of the cubes should be written on the side of the cube with the help of black wooden crayon
This test is used to measure the ability to compress uniaxial concrete cubes made, treated and tested according to specific supplies. It does not in any way guess the power of concrete in a building. It is the process of quality control that processes the consistency of a particular structure using a systematic assessment method. Testing the similar concrete under different conditions, for example template size, cool temperature, template shape, rate of loading etc. will contribute different results.
2. Mean and Standard deviation
Mean standard deviation
Sample 1 35.1 11.44
Sample 2 39.1 1.22
Sample 3 38.3 0.9
Sample 4 38.9 1.4
3. using your results identify or determine: (Appendix 1)
• The elastic and plastic region
• The yield stress
• The ultimate or maximum stress
• The Modulus of elasticity of the material (Young's Modulus)
Area = 477
Length = 300
4. Calculate the density of the supplied samples of materials based on measurement and weight. Record all your results
Metal (iron) 7860
b. Properties of the material
The common term plastics used for extensive variety of synthetic materials made from polymer. Due to its strength, flexibility and resistance to corrosion it can be used to perform many functions in the constructionof the building. It can be made by cables, pipes, covers, sheets formed to produce parts of little density and then dissolve into solvents. It is simple but powerful, and makes the navigation simple; thisis the advantages of using plastic in constructionindustry. It is energy efficient, have rust resistance, and is extremely weatherproof because it can withstand rigid seals.
Concrete is world famous as one of the most abundant resources in the world. The durability and flexibility of concrete make it a prevalent item, useful especially due to its low cost in constructing buildings. Concrete is one of the sturdiest materials available. In addition, concrete cannot rust, rot, rust as well as provide reliable foundations for the highest quality buildings. Compared with other building materials such as timber, concrete has a double life span, making it ideal for lasting use. It is a durable material because and does not need as much refinement as materials of the other building need. The walls and floors in the building are very strong if they are made of concrete. It also helps avert allergies such as pollen from entering the buildings, and helps to control temperatures at low cost and energy efficiency. It has the skill to absorb and retain the heat which helps in energy saving making the structure more efficient.
C. Define the various types of loads that a structure must resist.
The load of a building is the force and acceleration used by elements of the structure. The load causes pressure, shift, and flexibility in structure. Different types of loads can cause stress, migration, and structural changes leading to problems and even structural failure (The Constructor2022).
Thermal load: Loads occur when the material of the building suffers to the temperature changes can create the significant loads in the structure.
Residence load: This type of load occurs when one part of a building sits above other parts.
Flood load: This is caused by water and flood which leads to corrosion.
Soil and water load: It is occur due to excessive water flow in the soil which affects soil compaction.
Dead loads which load remain unchanged over time. It includes the weight of structural elements, such as roofs, beams, walls, and parts of a floor structure also known vertical loads in
Air loadAir loads can be used for air movement in relation to a building, and the analysis draws attention to the understanding of meteorology and aerodynamics and structures.
Earthquakes loadsThe seismic load occurs due to the inertia force generated in the building due to the earthquake
Live loadIts means a load that can change over time and the term used community engineering that. The weight of the load varies or changes locations for example when people move around a building.
With the aid of sketches, how timber, steel and concrete are affected by the application of your identified loads/forces on a structure.
The long-term behavior of the load, which arises as a result of cracks, is one of the most important effects of separating timber from other building material. It has been investigated by the analysis of accrued damage and the recurrence of the concept of 'heartbeat' with the effects of wood load time. With the tendency to engineer construction of wooden structures that are loaded with naturally burdens such as earthquake loads and wind s. The consequences of loading time on both key components and building connections may be particularly important (Rosowsky 2002).
The problems with structural elements: columns collapse, beams collapse, and failure to connect. It has been noted that the details of a shared structure play a very important role in buildings that are accidentally loaded. Accidental loading can be caused by an object, an explosion, an explosion, an earthquake, and a fire (Barata 2013).
• the appearance of influential conditions in steel structures,
• the impact of the sensitivity model of metal objects, and
• the behavior of the steel column contact against impact loading.
Construction load on the supporting system consisting of beach slabs and reshores that contribute to the disaster of the reinforced concrete structure during construction. Significant losses of property are caused by overcrowding. It has also been found that neglecting the construction process in the expansive analysis of multi-story buildings leads to a significant error in stress due to dead load (Mosallam 1991).
The use of sustainable practices and considerations for material choice can improve the environmental rating of a completed building
The selection of material for building undoubtedly requires careful consideration. It the concept of sustainability and which need to be well-adjusted by solving many other problems such as socia,l energy efficiency, and environmental impacts in various ways including:
The use of efficient material and design
Will minimize the demand for material
lower impact on environment (Istructe 2022)
Sustainable project is the passion of todays architectures Any plans and measures that can recover health, comfort or care are portion of this policy (Velazco 2022).
This method use to progress the life cycle of a building are the objectives of a the large n.o of the constructors
Reducing the cost of life cycle of a building is part of this plan.
Contractors should consider ingredients that need insignificant maintenance
Easily adapt according to the future need which can significantly during its life time reduce its impact on environment (Istructe 2022).
Dumping of sustainable materials results in less damage than other kinds of construction materials which includes plastics
Means a reduced amount of waste disposal
A lesser amount of consumption of energy
a smaller amount of impact on the environment
For example. Natural wood has a lesser life cycle rate than other constituents.
End of life/ deconstruction
This process that is often overlooked or think to be a subsequent consideration, but consideration of life of the material can have a important impact on the structure.
Concern gives to recycled material that it can be converted it to their original form, reused or, where this is not possible,
Recycled can limits the amount of waste to a landfill (Istructe 2022).
Benefit to heath
When considering building materials for the construction of the building, the long-term impact on health is often ignored.
Sustainable building materials release no toxins while uncontrolled substances can release harmful toxins i.e. carcinogens and (Velazco 2022).
Built to last
If we to build the building permanent. It is important while choose building materials consider the period of the material, from its source to its loss.
In the case of building materials (or peripherals), product stability and environmental characteristics can be measured from its production to destruction (Velazco 2022).
It is very important to know that how the building will be constructed to ensure that waste during construction is reduced
It is done through pre-construction and standard equipment unit.
Consideration to should be given to the material which according to the environment and the skills of local workers.
This is especially important in remote and developing countries where construction, and storage of new or unusual materials can be a challenge (Istructe 2022).
While selecting the material for construction it is essential to consider the storage chain and the details of the material and supplier.
This includes the approval of timber to certify that it comes from an official basis and properly accomplished forests (Istructe 2022).
The use of biological cycle analyzes and natural product declarations enables us to evaluate the potential impact of construction materials.
This includes the problems such as the use of underdeveloped resources, combined carbon, impacts of pollution, water use, etc. (Velazco 2022).
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a. Material selection strategy based on human comforts
Other important consideration when architects choosing building materials are how to deliver a relaxedatmosphere. The comfort of the person in a building can be affected by many factors which, can lead to poor health, if not properly considered which also known as sick building syndrome. It is a term that refers to complex signs of health and comfort where no one can determine the actual reason it is associated with the time spent on a particular building (HSE 2022).
The following factors of human comfort that designers should consider when choosing building materials:
Heat comfort is the condition when a person inside a building feels pleased with the temperature.Deprived temperature cans mean that the person lives in a particular building feel very cold and warm. Beside this it is associated with risk of health but when people are unhappy with their hot climate it does not allow them to do their work properly which may affect their efficiency at work. The thermal conductivity of building materials is very important and at the top of the building.
Indoor air quality
The quality of ventilation within a building is also another factor that can affect comfort of the people is. The main purpose is to eliminate the bad air and change it with fresh air. It is necessary for human to inhale the fresh air, there is a danger of it getting polluted if there is no suitable system of freshen it and causes the airborne diseases when people inhale it.
The visual comfort of the building includes the pleasing effect to the eyes of the occupants. It's not only includes the color and quality of the materials but also the presence of ordinary light on the surface of the building. It can affect the health of residents. It also have a tendency to to improve mood of the person, release stress and eye pressure. In addition, it can considerably decrease the power consumption of synthetic lamps.
Extreme noise is another issue that can adversely affect the well-being of the person. Noise allergies can adversely affect health or quality of life. It can be prohibited or decreased by selecting the right methods. The constructions of thick and dense walls provide better sound insulation than light walls. The use of glass very bad option noise protection because it is thin. Soundproof fabrics such as fiberglass quilt are perfect for soundproofing. Usually, they are used on the walls of the pit.
It is air's temperature air in the surrounding environment and usually calculated in Celsius.
It is the heat emanating from hot object. Radiant heat is present when there are heat sources in the area. Radiait has the greater impact than temperature of air on how the person lose and gain heat in the environment. Sources of Radiant heat includes: fire, oven, cooks, hot spots and machinery etc.
It has great influence on thermal comfort as an example:
• Stagnant o air in an indoor heated house can make people to feel exhausted. It also cause the formation of bad smells.
• Moving air in warm conditions can increase loss of heat via convection without any temperature change of air.
The amount of water in the air when it evaporates in the environment will provide moisture. Humidity 40-70% does not have a significant impact on constancy. In cooler workstations, or where the indoor temperature are affected by outdoor weather conditions the humidity may greater than 70%. Humidity in indoor areas can be differ and may depend on the drying process which includes paper mills, laundry, etc. in which steam is extracted.
b. Human Comfort Calculations
Values of Thermal conductivity are in W/mK
Lightweight Plaster = 0.18
Aerated Concrete block = 0.11
Insulation Board = 0.025
Brickwork = 0.77
Standard Thermal Resistances in m2 K/W
Internal surface = 0.12
External surface = 0.06
Cavity = 0.18
External Brick =102.5mm
Air Gap =35mm
Concrete Block =100mm
Lightweight = 12mm Plaster
U value for cavity wall calculated by the formula U=1/Rt
Where Rt =Ris+ Rp+Rcon+Rc+Ri+Rb+Rso
R=material resistance / thermal conductivity
Rt= 0.12+0.09+1.4+0.18+0.15+ 0.06
U value = 0.46W/m²k
Calculate the following
(i) Fabric heat loss
Fabric heat loss = (ΣUxAx ) × ΔT
Change in temperature ΔT = Ti-Te
ΔT = 21- (-1)
ΔT = 22
Area (m2) U values (W/m² K) COFFIECIENT (/w/k)
Floor 82.68 0.55 41.4
Roof 15.3 0.4 6.12
Windows 6 0.24 14.4
Doors 1.2 1.65 1.98
Walls 12.6 0.46 5.7
Fabric heat loss = (ΣUxAx ) × ΔT
= 69 × 22
=1526 W K-1
(ii) Ventilation heat loss
Ventilation heat loss = 0.33 × n × V × ΔT
=0.33 × 1.5× 133.56× 22
=1454 W K-1
(iii) Total heat loss in kilowatts
1526+ 1454.36=2980 W K-1
A workshop with 175 watt low pressure sodium vapor lamp at 3 meters above floor. The Sodium vapor lamp efficacy is 142.8 lumens per watt
Calculate luminance directly below and 4 m to the side of lamp
Fl is the abbreviation for luminous flux a measure of perceived power of light the units are known as lumens
Fl= 142.8 lumens
A= 3*4 = 12m²
Luminance = 142.8/12
Current Machine 80dB
New Machine 77dB
To ensure compliance you are to calculate the combined sound levels.
The combined sound level is 81.3db