Course - HNC in Engineering (Electrical and Electronic)


Unit 03 Engineering Science is a foundation course for the HNC in Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It equips students with the fundamental scientific principles that underpin electrical and electronic systems. The course covers areas like the International System of Units (SI), data analysis, mechanics (forces, fluids), thermodynamics, material properties, and AC/DC circuits. By understanding these scientific concepts, students can interpret data, solve engineering problems, explain material behavior, and apply electromagnetic principles in real-world electrical and electronic applications. This knowledge prepares them for further study in specialized electrical and electronic engineering subjects.

Engineering Science

Assignment - Applications of the physical sciences to Engineering problems

Table of Contents

  • Contents
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Task 1
  • Task 2
  • Task 3
  • Task 4
  • References

Task 1.0 Present to an audience an analysis of the scientific data using both computational and qualitative methods using an appropriate software package.


Analysis of scientific data:

As a student plan and make in a megatronics working for science work (tests) profound traversing information on machine-like and electrics concepts.

Your part is significant for me great accomplishing function admirably of work, and improvement enterprises total work with the other cycle points.

For continue running of vital things and machines these should be upheld time to time be help trainee.

You will over-see fixed standard request of acting help and put directly by utilizing information preparing machines electronic system.
By getting blended in a difficult situation with controlling and taking a gander at advancement and at times in the make are of It will be assists with the maintenance.

The coming here-after are these responsibilities Control uphold mechanical assembly for making or put right things and stores.

Take care each time fundamental things working and do fixed ordinary request of acting help as equipment's. Control all the help system. Work breakdown framework equipment.

S.I supports to the structure decimals augmentations and boat ready to go submerged makes more noteworthy in number of S.I units (BIRD.J, 2012)

They are need to use to avoid incredibly estimated or modest number qualities. There should be 0%error.

The current people of government in another nation going directly to something to the name of an arrangement of naming and prefix uncommon sign people of government in another nation going directly to something to the extraordinary sign for a unit.

We can utilize the organic product covered with glue cooked guide to travers's information on and the inquiry being talked about immediately and unmistakably to under the nature of work or item done.

So, we can obviously overcome information on other through giving clear, full picture.

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The conditions making things hard range observations of a building under building are taken. How much range process of making measures end to end longer each floor can put up with is the lastundertaking. (TOOLEY, M. and DINGLE, L. 2012)

Facts group different facts are in order using the range fixed size apparatus. The self-control facts is as made clearly mentioned in the under

The graphical pictures of is made clearly mentioned bottom

50% -Work under
29% -Work done
21%-Work time

For made of different part or materials materials











































Task 2.0 Determine parameters within mechanical engineering systems

Write a formal report on the potential in service conditions that may have caused material failure and the structural properties of the given metals, polymer and composite that you have been investigating in Task 1.0.


To do with structure properties
The old and savvy heat impacts are:
stage change, essentially going gradually away and bubbling (stage change temperatures).
Glass change level of warmth. (TOOLEY, M. and DINGLE, L.2012). Dimensional change, essentially heat development (by and large, making, decreasing assuming awful, under zero).
Elasto-plastic changes, in view of, corresponding to warm conditions making things hard. Fragile/bendable change level of warmth.
Synthetic change, separate, oxidation, starting up.
Other actual, keeping discrete, shading.
Heat impacts, corresponding to non-warm problems: frictional warming, electrics warming, compound warming, atomic warming.
Kind of man-made Material
Material Mis-determination 45%
Furthermore, helpless subtleties
Concerning how things are to be finished
Unpleasing plan 20%
Helpless handling 20%
Assaults on and wrong utilization of 15%
Sluggishness ineffective individual 30%
Slow annihilation (by corrosive) 40%
Over-weight 15%
Disturbing 10%
Dread causing individual 5%

Going lower might be a shaded by emotions, minds word (for example solidifying of earth-based materials made hard by warming by heat, or of metals by making hard, is going lower or thing giving more noteworthy incentive to of the material)

Heat going lower might be a direct result of, corresponding to a warm gone through warming (giving go higher to dis colouration, expanded going discreetly, furtively, gradually, heat getting old) or to a harsh warming as in fire making open to. heat getting old especially significant without harm prepares, on the grounds that chromium-carbide downpour may occur at grain division line, making less the closest groups, parts in chromium and hence making value lower moderate pulverization (by corrosive) halting impact.

The impact of fire on materials is a critical inquiry being talked about in building (for example aluminum cannot be utilized as a to do with structure building material since its abruptly give route at serious level of warmth). (BOLTON, W. 2006) Concerning a significant number of the warmth impacts questions, initial a lone warmth scaled-duplicate is planned and found solution to, delivering the contribution to the coming after to do with structure perceptions; the two models might be set up and found solution to with a similar contraption for making or put right things ( for example a with limits part analyser for structures and warmth giving in law), or by free device for making or put right things (what might be less expensive and more ready to do various things, at the cost of getting blended the realities giving association ).

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Task 3.0

Determine the reaction forces at either end.

Reaction powers at one or the flip side
RA + RB = 45kN
The second one is RA is equivalent to RBx 6 m = 45 kN x 4m
RB = (45 kN x 4)/6=30kN
RA= 45 kN - R2 = 15 kN

Recalculate the reaction forces at either end, taking into account the actual weight of the beam as a UDL.

Given data g = 9.81m/s2.
UDL of 39kg/m =39x9.81=382.59
Moment about A=0

Examine two engineering applications of buoyancy?

Solution: To being kept up in water lightness makes clear the greatest point rate of motion in skydiving take into account as the under number in sign the person jumping from airplanes to play on the way down at max rate of motion.

max rate of motion Weight of the manmade free with greatest point rate of motion aswellasthe weight quality of man 80-kilogram sloping down

The manmade weight is 80 kilograms. Openly quality example of accurate level= 1.2kg/m3.

amount of weight made free person jumping from airplanes to play on the way down= rate of motion of person jumping from airplanes to play on the way down X lower top part of person jumping from airplanes to play on the way down

lower top part of person jumping from airplanes to play on the way down is worked out dependent on the Du Bois and Motseller equation.

Mass of Air going straight to something moved out= amount of Air moved out X Air relation between mass and size

Mass of skydiver kilograms 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

Surface area mass 1.88 1.96 2.01 0.08

Terminal velocity mass/seconds 56.9 71.5 84.80 60.81

Terminal Velocity Kilometers/hour 207 226 239 332

Mass of air displayed kilograms 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

From the above table we can overcome information on that the 80 kilogram man is having a device at end of framework pace of movement of 66.80 m/s An individual hopping from planes to play in transit down at contraption at end of framework pace of movement to dislodge 1 a mass of air equivalent to his mass each second.

Lightness in boats
Offer idea to various number in sign. The contemplated assessment plot from the number in sign is the mass of boat should be equivalent to the weight of air moved out. This can likewise be clarified same as the mechanical assembly at end of framework pace of movement of people hopping from planes to play in transit down. consider as a boat in a waterway. The heaviness of the boat is putting out force into on water. Water will utilize one's capacity a power called the ready to keep up in water power to the boat. With this rule the boat doesn't go down in water.

At the point when a boat proceeds onward water, as indicated by the material science thoughts of a quality basic to a gathering the heaviness of the equivalent to the thickness 4 of air.

Boat will utilize one's capacity the ready to keep up in water power down. Both the power over a given square unit and power are a result of, comparable to genuine air.

Discuss briefly the temperature effects on mechanical properties such as a dimensional change, elasto-plastic changes, due to thermal stresses.

Solution: consider as that a plastic plate is warmed. First there is versatile bended out misshaping, and a plastic bending in interminable disfigurement. (BOLTON, W. 2006). This is a result of, corresponding to material decreasing due to, according to plastic decreasing organizing.

Its power characteristics are:

More possibilities:
Ready to be utilized to substantial plates without hefty important things (no come to death, no press, no rolls), Cheap (a oxyacetylene hand kept hand-light is sufficient), and the twist gets thicker (all the more unequivocally against) and not more slender as when moving or pounding. The overall course anyway is toward extraordinarily estimated made programmed heating line important things, with a warmth source (through being put before a solid light) jumped on a gantry water fledgling with long legs. something in the method of: requests hands-controlled master information, high-heat causes material going lower (grain development, allotropic changes, species dissemination, surface responses: carburation nitridation, oxidation, Combustion).

Typically made a solicitation to thick gentle steel plates; the warming is beneath the progress temperature 17 (995K) to avoid hysteresis 18 inquiries.

Mathematical boundaries.
The main structure is a thick plate ( D10 20 mm), their sum, Breath ( b10 .20mm ) and distance down ( relying upon the warming cautious way ), must be chosen ( up to now encounter ).
Warming boundaries.

Warmth source input is a Gaussian 22 blueprint with a total intensity of nearly 5 kW. The oxyacetylene hand-light is the least expensive source 12, however has need of gas-flowrate-control and made programmed venturing (space between parts distance, LT40 mm 21, and speed 23, V10 mm 21/s 24) for perpetuity. exceptionally solid light bar 25 offers best control and inactive environment, however is all the higher in cost. high-number-of-times enlistment 28 depends a mass on the material, and it's getting-into is recurrence subordinate. The make metals join bend 29 is nothing but bad on the grounds that the low getting-into causes surface 15 softening 30.(TOOLEY, M. and DINGLE, L.2012)

Making a little cool boundary.

A water stream coming here-after the warmth source a good way off LC100 mm is utilized, delivering some solidifying by stopping.

Find the acceleration which will be produced in a body having a mass of 60 kg when a force of 150 N acts on this body by using d'Alembert's Principle.

mass = 60 kg
power = 150 N
Speeding up because of gravity utilizing De Alembert's rule =
Force=mass x acceleration

3.5 Determine the rate of heat loss per metre length of pipe if it can be assumed that the inner surface of the lagging is at the hot water temperature.

Temperature of boiling water = 70 0c
outer breadth = 150 mm
large breadth = 500 mm
surface temperature = 20 degrees
warm conductivity of the slacking = 0.09 W/mK.
Warmth misfortune =UAΔT

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Task 4.0
Determine Th'evenin's equivalent circuit and the current flowing in the 4 Ω resistor.

It is located through power is 4ω resistor
Eliminate heap 4ω and opened by the circuit that point and the power source is supplanted to be impede.(Thomas Floyd, 2013)
Compute RTh
RTh=10+ ((18)=10+3.43=13.43
Vm=28 V x 10/10+6=17.5 V
Iu= =17.5/13.43=1.303A

Use the superposition theorem to find currents Ii , I2 and I3 of Fig 3.0
If 4.5 V is acting alone
If 8.5 V is acting alone
So, I11=1.21A
4.2 Show how the following complex waveforms are produced from sinusoidal waveforms.
Therefore range of waves music
A=10 V
square wave sawtooth wave three-sided wave
Vn= 2A / nπ Vn= A / nπ Vn= 4A / (nπ)2
n = 1,2,3,7,5,6,7
V01 06.39 V01 03.23 V01 04.076 1
V02 03.17 V02 01.49 V02 01.025 2
V03 02.25 V03 01.06 V03 0.0435 3
V04 01.58 V04 0.082 V04 0.0.287 4
V05 01.35 V05 0.0648 V05 0.0182 5
V06 01.16 V06 0.058 V06 0.0128 6
V07 09.92 V07 0.046 V07 0.0780 7

A coil of inductance 74 mH and resistance 28 ohms in series with a 50uF capacitor is connected to a 250 V,50 Hz supply. Calculate:
i. The current flowing ii The voltage across L and C.
ii. Sketch the phasor diagram

R = 74 mH
L = 28 ohms
C= 50uF capacitor
connected to a 250 V,f=50 Hz

i)Current flowing ZL = √(?[R^2 )+(X_L -X_C)2]
ZL = 2πfL = 2× 3.14×50× 74 × 10-3 = 23.20ohms
ZC = 1/2πfC = 63.66ohms
The total impedence of the series RLC is given by the
ZT = (23.2-63.7)2 = 1640.250

R2 = (28)2 = 784
Z = 49.240
I = 250/49.24 =5.0881A
ii)The Voltage of across the capacitors and inductors are
VC= I × ZL
5.0881 × 63 = 320.5503V
VL = I × ZL
VL= 5.0881 × 23.2 =118.04392V
Phasor sketch

Impedance angle.
= tan-1 (Ve - VL)/VR
= tan-1 442.16

Impedence angle=142-44
Impedence angle=72.14

A coil of resistance 25 ? and inductance 100 mH is connected series with 0.12 uf capacitor across a 120 V, variable frequency supply. If R is small compare with XL as in radio circuits, Determine:
• the resonant frequency
• the Q - factor at resonance

R = 25 ohms
L = 100 mH
C =0.12 uf
F=1/(2π√LC) = 1.642KHz
Q =1/R xL/C= (9128.6 x ?10?^(-1))/25 = 36.515

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Explain the operation of a transformer using the principles of electromagnetic induction.

The transformers are can be worked as aelectromagnetic acknowledgment. It is focus kind of the many voltages as in the sketch we can grasp that a major piece of Low Voltage and High Voltagebendings are can be extremities. Take a gander at that as a voltage is applied to the fundamental. Hence thepower will stream I∅. A trading movement will be started in the middle.(Thomas Floyd, 2013). A power is also will affect in fundamental creation an emf be prompted in helper additionally.

Determine the efficiency of the transformer on full load Transformer productivity = O.P/I.P = (Input-misfortunes)/I.P
= 1-Losses/I.P
Information = 300KVA
Productivity = 1 -2.0×103.0/300000
Productivity= 99.40%

• The current in the coil
• The current in the capacitor
• The supply voltage and its phase angle
• The circuit impedance
• Sketch the phasor diagram

R = 60 ohms, L = 318.4 mH, C= 15 uF, V= 200v, 50 Hz W=100
VC = 200V
Ic=116.59x1.028 L-28.10/127.36 L-61.89
Ic=119.85/127.36 L89.99
ILR = 1.25A
I = 0.4+1.25 =1.65A
Ic = 200 ×2×3.14×50× 15× 10-6 = 0.4A
Supply voltage 200 and point 0
Z eq= 116.53ohms

Validate the results using simulation packages.

All are endorsed using re-enactments. Same results are gotten.


  1. What does it mean to examine scientific data using computational methods?
  2. How do we determine parameters within mechanical engineering systems?
  3. What kind of software is used for these tasks?
  4. What are the different types of engineering materials?
  5. What properties are important for engineering materials?
  6. Where can I learn more about material properties?
  7. What are AC and DC circuits?
  8. What are circuit theorems?
  9. What are electromagnetic principles and properties?
  10. How can I learn more about circuit analysis and electromagnetism?

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