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Qualification - Pearson BTEC Level 3 Foundation Diploma in Applied Science
Unit Name - Biological molecules and metabolic pathways
Unit Number - Unit 10
Unit Level - Level 3
Assignment Title - Biological molecules and Biochemical processes
Learning aim 1: Understand the structure and function of biological molecules and their importance in maintaining biochemical processes
o contains hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms
o structural and chemical formulae. Bonding:
o in water molecule (covalent bonding)
o between water molecules (hydrogen bonding). Importance:
o as a solvent
o medium for chemical reactions
o pH regulation
o electrolyte balance
o temperature regulator
o cohesion-tension in transpiration.
Structure and features:
o contain carbon (C), hydrogen and oxygen atoms
o disaccharides, e.g. lactose, maltose and sucrose
o polysaccharides, e.g. amylose, amylopectin, cellulose
o use of iodine and Benedicts' solution as tests for presence of carbohydrates. Importance:
o energy production
o energy storage
o lipid metabolism
o prevention of protein breakdown for energy in animals.
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A3 Proteins and nucleic acids
Structural features: proteins:
o primary structure, including peptide links to give polypeptides
o secondary structure, - -pleated sheets
o tertiary structure, to include ionic interaction, hydrogen bonding, sulphur bridges and van der Waal's forces
o quaternary structure, e.g. haemoglobin
o classification as globular or fibrous
o use of Biuret solution as a test for presence of protein
o nucleotide structure (deoxyribose or ribose, phosphate and purine or pyrimidine base)
o polynucleotide structure with bonds made through condensation reactions
o formation of the DNA double helix through complementary base pairing
o importance of proteins and nucleic acids
o enzymes that control metabolism
o as neurotransmitters
o for transport of other components
o body tissue growth and repair
o muscle contraction in animals (actin and myosin interaction: detailed knowledge of the sliding filament theory not required)
o blood clotting in animals
o role of nucleic acids in coding for genes and controlling gene expression.
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in fats, oils and waxes
saturated and unsaturated fats, and formation of diglycerides and triglycerides via esterification reactions
use of emulsion tests to identify presence of lipids importance of lipids in animals:
o energy sources
o insulation and organ protection in animals
o phospholipids in membranes
o production of vitamins.
A5 Disruption of biochemical processes in living organisms
The causes and effects of disruption to biochemical processes, to include: porphyria
diabetes mellitus cystic fibrosis
exposure to carcinogens
interference in plant growth regulators, e.g. delaying or promoting fruit ripening using the effects of ethene and gibberellins; disruption of auxin transport; use of synthetic auxin.
Learning aim B: Explore the effect of activity on respiration in humans and factors that can affect respiratory pathways
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the universal energy currency. Stages and locations of aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathways
Glycolysis: conversion of monosaccharides to pyruvate; production of lactic acid in anaerobic respiration and ethanol in yeast.
Link reaction. Krebs cycle:
o conversion of molecules in the cycle from citric acid to oxaloacetate
o carbon dioxide (CO2) production.
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