# Cryptographic Data Objects and Authentication Protocols Assignment Help

Cryptographic Data Objects and Authentication Protocols Assignment Help
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**U30606 Assignment - University of Portsmouth, UK**

Answer ALL of the following EIGHT tasks.

**Task 1 - Cryptographic Data Objects**

B has just received the following message, which represents a cryptographic data object:

{(

{(K_{PbB})K^{PrS} mod K_{PbS}}K1,

{|(N_{B}, N_{A} , {{({K2}K_{PbB}, N_{S})}(G1)^{KPrA} mod N_{A}}K1, {|{( {G3}(K_{PbA})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}, G2)}K1|}K_{PrB})|}K_{PrA}

)}K_{BS}

The following explains various terms in this object and some of the abbreviations used:

- {M} K represents the encryption of some message/data M using the key K

- {|M|} K represents the digital signing of some message/data M using the key K

- N_{X} represents a nonce (i.e. a fresh and possibly random number used once only) generated by X

- K_{pbX} represents the public part of the key pair presumably owned by X

- K_{prX} represents the private part of the key pair presumably owned by X

- K_{AB} represents a symmetric key shared between A and B

- K (or K1, K2, K3 etc.) represents some arbitrary key with no assumptions about its scope

- M represents some alphanumeric/textual message with no assumptions

- G1, G2, G3 etc. are prime numbers

which of the following sets of keys, nonces, numbers, and alphanumeric/textual messages "best" represents B's knowledge , after B applies any number of possible cryptographic operations to the object above, and assuming that B already has access to key K1 and the public key of any agent:

a) K_{BS}, G_{2}, K_{PrB}

b) {(K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}, G2, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}, {(K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}}K1, N_{A}, N_{B}

c) N_{A}, N_{B}

d) N_{A}, N_{B}, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}

e) {(K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}}K_{1}, {|(N_{B}, N_{A}, {{({K2}K_{PbB}, N_{S})}(G1)^{KPrA }mod N_{A}}K1, {|{({G3}(K_{PbA})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}, G2)}K1|}K_{PrB})|}K_{PrA}, N_{A}, N_{B}, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}, {(K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}

f) G2, N_{A}, N_{B}, G1, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}

g) (K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}, N_{A}, N_{B}, G2, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}

h) (K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}, (G1)^{KPrA }mod N_{A}, N_{A}, N_{B}, G2, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}

i) (K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}, G3, G2, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}

j) (K_{PbB})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}, N_{A}, N_{B}, G2, K_{BS}, K_{PrB}, G3, (K_{PbA})^{KPrS }mod K_{PbS}

k) N_{B}

Explain your answer.

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**Task **2 - Authentication Protocols

Consider the following 4-message protocol:

1. A → S: (B, {(A, K1) }K_{pbS})

2. S → B: A

3. B → S: (A, {( B, K2) }K_{pbS})

4. S → A: (B, {K2}K1)

Which of the following statements is true, at the end of the protocol, and with regards to the purpose of the protocol:

a) Both A and B establish a session key K2, and B is sure of A's identity

b) Both A and B establish a session key K1, and B is sure of A's identity

c) Both A and B establish a session key K1, and A is sure of B's identity

d) Both A and B establish a session key K1, and both B and A are sure of each other's identity

e) Both A and B establish a session key K2, and A is sure of B's identity

f) Both A and B establish a session key K1

g) Both A and B establish a session key K2

h) Both A and B authenticate each other by knowing each other's identities

i) A ends up knowing B's identity

j) B ends up knowing A's identity

k) None of the above

l) All of the above

Explain your answer.

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**Task **3 - Non -Repudiation and Anonymity Protocols

For the Zhou-Gollman non-repudiation protocol discussed in the lecture on "Non -Repudiation and Anonymity Protocols", which one of the following statements is false:

a) At time point 4, both A and B can produc e evidence to prove that they received K

b) At time point 2, both A and B can produce evidence to prove that they received a signed message from the other party

c) At time point 0, S cannot prove anything

d) At time point 3, B cannot produce evidence to prove that A has access to key K

e) At time point 1, A can prove that B is alive

f) At time point 4, S can prove that A is alive

g) At time point 3, S can produce evidence that that A has access to key K

h) At time point 0, A is alive

i) At time point 2, A can produce evidence to prove that B is alive

j) At time point 4, the protocol terminates

Explain your answer.

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**Task **4 - Forwards Secrecy Protocols

Consider the following 4 -message protocol:

1. A → S: ( B, {(A, K1)}K_{pbS})

2. S → B: A

3. B → S: (A, {(B, K2)}K_{pbS})

4. S → A: (B, {K2}K1)

Assume three runs of the above protocol, that we call P1, P2 and P3. If after completion of run P3, K1 is compromised, i.e. it is leaked to some external intruder, how would this impact the forward secrecy property of K2 for all the three runs of the protocol P1, P2 and P3? Choose the right answer:

a) Compromising K1 in P3 compromises every other key in all of the three runs of the protocol

b) The secrecy of P3.K2 is not compromised, and therefore P2.K 2 and P1.K 2 would remain secret

c) Compromising K1 in P3 compromises P3.K 2, and therefore, every other previous version of K1 and K2 are also compromised

d) The secrecy of P3.K 2 is compromised, but P2.K 2 and P1.K 2 would remain secret since K1 is refreshed after each run, therefore P3.K1 is different from P2.K 1 and is different from P1.K1

e) Even though K1 is compromised in P3, K2 is not compromised in any of the three runs

Explain your answer.

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**Task **5 - Attacks on Security Protocols

Consider the following 4 -message protocol:

1. A → S: (B, {(A, K1)}K_{pbS})

2. S → B: A

3. B → S: (A, {(B, K2)}K_{pbS})

4. S → A: (B, {K2}K1)

And the following attack trace:

1. I(A) → S: (B, {(A, K)}K_{pbS})

2. S → B: A

3. B → S: (A, {(B, K2)}K_{pbS})

4. S → I(A): (B, {K2}K)

Which one of these changes to the protocol messages would fix the attack trace above, such as the attack then becomes impossible:

a) 3. B → S: (A, {(B, {K2}K_{pbA})}K_{pbS})

b) 4. S → A: (B, {K_{2}, A}K1)

c) 2. S → B: {A}K_{pbB}

d) 2. S → B: B

e) 3. B → S: (A, {(B, {K2} K_{prS})}K_{pbS})

f) 1. A → S: {(B, A, K1)}K_{pbS}

g) 1. A → S: (A, {(B, K1)}K_{pbS})

h) 4. S → A: (B, {K1}K2)

i) 4. S → A: (A, B, {K2}K1)

j) 2. S → B: A, B

Explain your answer.

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**Task **6 - Mutation and Type-Flaw Attacks

Consider the following 4-message protocol between A and B, where (N+1) represents the increment of N:

1. A → B: (A, {N_{A}}K_{AB})

2. B → A: {(N_{A}+1, N_{B})}K_{AB}

3. A → B: {N_{B}+1}K_{AB}

4. B → A: {(K'_{AB}, N_{A})}K_{AB}

Which of the following mutations to messages of the protocol above, would constitute a harmful attack:

a) 1. A → B: (C, {N_{A}}K_{AB})

b) 1. A → B: ({N_{A}}K_{AB}, A)

c) 4. B → A: {(K_{AB}, N_{A})}K_{AB}

d) 4. B → A: {(K'_{AB}, N_{B}+1)}K_{AB}

e) 3. A → B: {N_{B}+1}K_{pbB}

f) 2. B → A: {(N_{A}+1, N_{A})}K_{AB}

Explain your answer.

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**Task **7 - Access Control Models and Policies

Assume a network that consists of a set of nodes, {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, j, k, l, x, z}. These nodes have the following partial order relation on them: {(b≤a), ( f≤e), (z≤l), (z≤x), (l≤g), (c≤b), (g≤k), (e≤d), ( g≤h ), (k≤j), (g≤e), (e≤c) , (d≤b) , (x≤e)}

Furthermore, assume that a BLP policy is being enforced in the above network. Now assume that at some stage, node z becomes infected with a virus. Which one of the following sets of actions would also lead to infecting node a, assuming that viruses propagate through a network using the read and write commands. A virus would propagate from one node to another either because the second node read from the first one, or because the first node wrote to the second one. All read and write commands are subject to the policy being enforced and no read or write operation is possible in the absence of an order (either direct or indirect) between two nodes:

a) (l read from z), (l write to g), (g read from l ), (g read from e ) , (e write to c), (c write to b), (a read from b)

b) (z read from l), (a read from l)

c) (z write to x ) , (x write to e), (a read from e)

d) (z write to c), (b write to c), (a read from b)

e) (z write to g), (g write to h), (b read from h), (b write to a)

f) (x read from z), ( x write to e ) , (e write to d), ( a write to d)

g) (z write to g), (j read from g), (j write to d), (d write to b), (a read from b)

h) (z write to l) , (l write to g), (g write to c), (c write to d), (d write to b), (b write to a)

i) (a write to z)

j) (f read from z), (a read from f)

Explain your answer.

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**Task **8 - Security Datasets and Metrics

Considering the Cyber security open datasets provided by the Los Alamos National laboratory. Choose which one of the datasets below, would be most suitable to the definition of a metric for measuring the probability of the leakage of data from computers. To help you consider which dataset is best suited, you can imagine the scenario where you use the public laptops provided in the lockers in the Future Technology Centre (FTC) floors 1 or 2 during your tutorial hour for this module.

a) dns.txt.gz

b) redteam.txt.gz

c) User-Computer Authentication Associations in Time

d) Unified Host and Network Dataset

e) auth.txt.gz

f) proc.txt.gz

g) flows.txt.gz

Explain your answer.

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